To the top
Presentations
The Physics of Life vocabulary

The Physics of Life - vocabulary

A |  B |  C |  D |  E |  F |  G |  H |  I |  J |  K |  L |  M |  N |  O |  P |  R |  S |  T |  U |  V |  W |  Y |  Z | 

10 keys to understanding life 
 


Definiens:

The key to understanding life is to understand the matching process, which groups chemical particles to the form of objects considered by us as alive.

nature of things 1. absorption of resources
2. RPD-type chemical particles
design or pattern 3. properties of nitrogenous bases
4. properties of nucleotides
flesh 5. properties of amino acids
6. properties of proteins
building on design 7. properties of tRNA
8. mRNA and rRNA – ribosomes functionality
constructor 9. duplication & alteration of designs
improving factor 10. selection

 

Full description of the Keys to understanding life

 


 

Remarks:




* * *



Absolute thinking 
 

Definiens:

Absolute thinking consists of three basic ways of thinking:

  1. reductionist thinking,
  2. systemic thinking and
  3. game theory thinking.
Absolute thinking is the ability to use an appropriate type of thinking to analyse the phenomenon being investigated;

 

Full definition of Absolute thinking.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Ahamkara 
 

Definiens:

A term borrowed from Sanskrit, literally "the concept of Self in any created thing or action". It is a disorder of perception and analysis of reality by living objects caused by the perception of oneself as the main authority – "It is I (or eventually the group to which I belong) about whom the world revolves".

There are two barriers to objective observation: natural barriers of objective observation and ahamkara – the subjective barriers to objective observation.

Ahamkara includes:

  1. The conviction of our own omnipotence (Nothing will happen to me)

  2. The conviction of our own infallibility (Supreme triumph of reason is self-doubt in his own infallibility - Miguel de Unamuno)

  3. Thinking using rigid thinking patterns instead of using the absolute thinking;

  4. Lack of knowledge (Science has two ends: one is a pure natural ignorance in which all humans are at birth. The other end is the one which the great souls acquire, who scanned everything what people can know, come to conclusion that they know nothing and that they are in a similar ignorance from which they came from: but it is a learned ignorance which knows itself. While mediocre people who came out of the natural ignorance, but did not reach the learned ignorance, they have some sort of refinement of a self-righteous knowledge in themselves and they pretend to be wise guys. Those disturb the world and think fallaciously about everything. - Blaise Pascal)

  5. The desire for power, including criticizing and instructing others what and how to do something,

  6. Inadequate moral assessment: so-called Kali syndrome, Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brother's eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye? - Matthew 7:3. Excessive criticism of someone else's minor flaws without being aware that we allow ourselves much more serious deficiencies,

  7. Inadequate achievement assessment: jealousy

  8. Inadequate response to criticism - the discrepancy between the vision of one's own perfection and its outer reception

  9. The concept of happiness, that is how you find happiness,

  10. The hierarchy of needs (according to Maslow)

    1. Physiological needs (food, shelter, procreation, etc.)
    2. Safety needs (protection against illness, unemployment and age-incapacity for work)
    3. Love/Belonging needs (need of acceptance, love, friendship, belonging to a group, elite)
    4. Esteem needs (need of success, respect, prestige, importance)
    5. Self-actualization needs (the need to develop oneself, abilities, talents, interests, confirmation of self-value)

  11. Desire for fame, respect and prestige;

  12. We are highly vulnerable to propaganda, although we are convinced that it does not affect us at all;

  13. ...

 


 

Remarks:

  • One result of ahamkara is the Rashomon phenomenon: the phenomenon of subjective perception of memories, which is manifested by the fact that different observers of the same event tell much different, but equally probable, versions of how it happened.




* * *



Applied confrontation 
 

Definiens:

Checking how the discovered rules and laws work in practical situations.




* * *



Aristocraticization 
 

Definiens:

The process of losing self-esteem and effectiveness of people in power.

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Artificially false messages 
 

Definiens:

The phenomenon of creating messages that have upset the process of observation. Artificially false messages are one of the elements of the barriers to objective observation.

 


 

Remarks:

  • One of the main sources of artificially false messages are people in power applying social engineering.

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Asch Conformity Experiment 
 

Definiens:

Detailed description of Solomon Asch Conformity Experiment.

One of the most important sociological experiments in The Physics of Life, showing that people conform for two main reasons:

  1. because they want to fit in with the group (Normative influence)
  2. because they believe the group is better informed than they are (Informational influence).

 


 

Links:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Attractor 
 

Definiens:

In systems theory, attractor is the set of states in phase space (a space in which all possible states of a system are represented), in which, over time, all the states of all system properties tend to reach for this set of stetes. An attractor can be a point (equilibrium position), curve (trajectory), closed curve (limit cycle) or fractal (strange attractor).

Attractor "attracts", as its name implies, the states of the system properties. When the system has several attractors, each of which has its own area of attraction.

The existence of attractors are evident in many areas including biology, physics, astronomy, economics and social psychology.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The opposite of an attractor is a repeller




* * *



Atlases/Looters 
 

Definiens:

Atlases/Looters or Thieves/Producers - the fundamental classification of humans. Communities owe their existence to Atlases (Producers). They are pushing the world forward, producing the desired goods, making breakthrough inventions and exchanging them on the principle of free market. Looters (Thieves) do not produce, they do everything to take over someone else's resources without giving anything in return.

 


 

Remarks:

  • This classification was proposed by Ayn Rand and brilliantly described in her book "Atlas Shrugged"
  • The Physics of Life uses the same classification: Producers (generators of desired resources) and Thieves (annihilators of the desired resources).
  • Other classification: makers versus tekers.
  • Other classification: ants versus grasshoppers.
  • Other classification: victims versus predators.
  • Other classification: makers versus takers.




* * *



Autodynamic system(/object) 
 

Definiens:

System (/object), which generates the processes that change the system itself or its components.

 


 

Examples:

  • Biological evolution occurring in the Earth's ecosystem, whose elements are all living objects, their behaviour makes the next generation of living objects different from their predecessors and they also behave differently. (An example of continuous iterative autodynamism).
  • The man cutting off the branch on which he is sitting. (It is an example of singular autodynamism).

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Balance of resergy 
 

Definiens:

Bilansowanie resergy, a więc nie tylko wielkości addytywnych i zachowawczych jakimi są matter i energy, lecz również information, która ani nie jest addytywna ani zachowawcza. Celem tego bilansowania jest podjęcie konkretnych decyzji o dalszym działaniu obiektu żywego.

Bilansowanie to jest bardzo trudne bowiem w przypadku materii i energii może opierać się na ścisłych metodach matematycznych, natomiast w przypadku informacji o precyzji nie może być mowy co wynika z natury informacji: nie da się rozważyć wszystkich wariantów dlatego też korzysta się z doświadczenia, czyli ze sprawdzonych w danych lub podobnych okolicznościach, wrodzonych lub nabytych, schematów postępowania. Bilansowanie informacji polega na wyznaczaniu rozkładów prawdopodobieństwa w danym obszarze decyzyjnym, uzględnieniu swoich aktualnych możliwości i dopiero w oparciu o to podjęcie decyzji, która i tak jest obarczona pewnym prawdopodobieństwem sukcesu, innymi słowy ryzykiem niepowodzenia.

 


 

Uwagi:

  • dzisiaj też panuje przekonanie, że nic tak nie służy rozwiązaniu problemu, jak właśnie urząd. Tymczasem jest to pogląd absurdalny już na pierwszy rzut oka. Urząd bowiem zatrudnia urzędników. W interesie urzędników, skoro już raz zdobyli zatrudnienie, pensję i jakiś zakres władzy, leży utrzymanie tego wszystkiego możliwe jak najdłużej.... Tymczasem pretekstem, dla którego powołany został urząd, było rozwiązanie problemu. Jeśli problem zostałby rozwiązany, urząd powinien być niezwłocznie zlikwidowany. W takiej sytuacji zatrudnieni w urzędzie urzędnicy nie mają żadnego interesu w szybkim rozwiązaniu problemu. Przeciwnie – w ich interesie leży, by problem był rozwiązywany możliwie jak najdłużej... - S. Michalkiewicz

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Barrier in processing of information 
 

Definiens:

The inability to make a one hundred percent faithful simulation of a complex system behaviour or, in other words, the inability to build a one hundred percent faithful model of a certain class of systems.

 


 

Remarks:

  • A simple proof of this is that one is unable to build a computer, which can memorise the whole history of all its memory cells, because it needs supplementary cells which were not part of the original memory.




* * *



Barriers to objective observation 
 

Definiens:

Inability to make true observations of reality due to the following groups of distortions:

  • passive distortion when being observed: observation influences the observed object and may change it or it's behaviour. [See Heisenberg's uncertainty principle];

  • active distortion when being observed: if the observed object is self-conscious of the fact of being observed it could react pursuancely and use any methods known in order to confuse the observer.

  • passive distortion of observation: both the observer and the instruments which are being used to observe have their own characteristics, and these distort the observation. A man who can not naturally hear infrasound cannot understand the behaviour of elephants and whales, which use them to communicate over long distances;

  • active distortion of observation: if the observing object is self-conscious, usually they behave typically for its population, of which it is a member. Emotional reactions, therefore, can filter the information that comes and "see only what they want to see" and/or "not see the obvious". A native will see their own country through rose-tinted glasses;

  • distortion due to the delay of information: due to the fact that the information gained from observed objects does not reach the observer instantaneously. The observer therefore sees no current state of the object, but a previous state;

  • impossibility of simultaneous observation: one observer is not able to observe several processes taking place at the same time or one process from different points of view.

  • Naturally false messages

  • artificially false messages

These factors are related to the observation itself. After observation, the information is analysed and conclusions are drawn. Any natural disturbance at this stage is ahamkara.

 


 

Remarks:

    • We observe the world around us through our senses. Their operation is based on very simple principle - a factor, such as a photon (or a sound wave), reflected from the observed (or listened) object or emitted by it, splashes the sensory receptor cells and causes a change in their condition. It is easy to see that if such a factor can change the state of the cells in the same way may change the state of the observed object, if it is sufficiently small. Therefore, that observation may change the observed object, and this leads to the conclusion that we will never be able to accurately measure all states of all the surrounding objects.

    • These restrictions do not only include objects of a small size but also large and distant objects. If the information about them (or its elements) reaches us in five minutes, then we do not observe their current state but how it was five minutes ago.

    • As far as observation is concerned, Far Eastern philosophy states that every living creature in this world is subject to four basic flaws:
      • imperfect senses
      • succumbing to illusions
      • tendency to deceive themselves and others ("I know that's not true, but in front of others I will pretend that it is")
      • inevitable mistakes




    * * *



Basic factor of development of societies 
 

Definiens:

The basic mechanism that causes the enrichment of the community. The permission for producers to accumulate profits from the voluntary exchange of their production surplus.

 


 

Remarks:

  • In history, when there were economic crises, leaders used this mechanism in order to escape the crisis. Examples include: Catherine the Great in Russia (18th Century), Lenin in the USSR (1921), Liu Shaoqi in Peoples Republic of China (1962) and the new, post-communist government in Poland in the 1990's.

  • The primary factor in the development of societies are the rule of law (not lawyers), and the resulting respect for property acquired through their own work - Andy Eyschen.

  • Of these 45 million, from 1 to 3 million people committed suicide and 2.5 million were beaten to death by party cadres, because, as one bitter scientist says: "they did not work hard enough, they dared to protest, because they moved too slowly, because one morning they did not have the strength to go to work, because in some cases they were considered to be too old or too sick - and what to do with such a person? Continue to feed them?".

    In China, this period is officially called the "three years of natural disasters" and hardly anyone knows it's real story. In fact, says Dikötter, these "disasters" were almost entirely caused by people. The Communist Party herded hundreds of millions of peasants into collective farms in order to improve the performance of agriculture and industry, and begin to compete with the superpowers (China intended to overtake Britain in steel production in 15 years). This radical collectivization simply destroyed the incentive to work. Agricultural productivity collapsed - hence hunger.
    [Quotation from the article "The great famine and great shame" - Sunday Times
    http://ciekawe.onet.pl/spoleczenstwo/wielki-glod-i-wielki-wstyd,2,4790703,artykul.html]

  • Everyone should have the same phone, live in similar houses, drive identical cars or better, a bike (why rush). Everyone should wear the same clothes. Then there will be no divisions. It was the case not so long ago in China and it doesn't work... If one tries harder, you can afford more and shows it by driving a top-of-the-range car and talking on the best mobile phone. And it is OK, because others will want the same, and this motivates them to act. This is the engine of progress. In this way we get to know the world around us and take possession of it (in a few years we will even explore Mars). The fact that people want better things and chase money, causes that now we can treat such diseases as: diabetes with human insulin produced by mutant bacteria. The drug companies do not invent new drugs, not because they are so noble, but for the fact that their CEO's want to have an even newer model of Bentley. - ~egon:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Behaviour 
 

Definiens:

Behaviour are changes in the state of a set of properties of an object. It can be seen as a mathematical process.




* * *



Benign neglect 
 

Definiens:

Metoda wychowawcza, polegająca na zostawieniu podopiecznego z problemem, mając na względzie, że poradzi on sobie z nim, przy okazji samodzielnie ucząc się i zdobywając nowe doświadczenia. W przypadku gdy podopieczny zupełnie nie radzi sobie ze znalezieniem rozwiązania stosuje się małe kroki mające go na to rozwiązanie nakierować. Wychowawca może interweniować tylko aby:
a/. nie dopuścić do katastrofy b/. w przypadku gdy wychowanek wyczerpał już wszystkie swoje możliwości znalezienia rozwiązania dać mu minimum wskazówek do pójścia dalej

Metoda polega na sprawdzaniu jak osoba realizuje dany proces i interweniowaniu dopiero wówczas gdy się "lekko sparzy". Stosujący życzliwe zaniedbanie dba tylko o to, by zarządzanej osobie nie stała się krzywda, natomiast małe porażki są nawet mile widziane, doskonale bowiem uczą nadążności w tym: przewidywania i wyprzedzania.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Biedocraticization 
 

Definiens:

The opposite to aristocraticization. The process of acquiring self-esteem and increase effectiveness of people living in poor conditions.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Strength borns out of necessity, and dies from the lack of it. - Leonardo da Vinci

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Biological evolution 
 

Definiens:

Biological evolution is a process that, in terrestrial conditions, called into existence living objects and continues to shape their subsequent generations. Biological evolution is a self-excited natural process generated by the RPD phenomenon, which is the construction of objects by grouping chemical molecules, then their disintegration and re-reconstruction. The other natural phenomenon influencing biological evolution involves the synthesis of proteins based on the information stored in DNA and RNA particles, which are also RPD-type particles, and which are also carriers of information upon which the proteins are built from amino acids.

The RPD phenomenon was the ignition from which all life began. The RPD also called into existence the following processes:

  • The first stage of gerpedelution - the natural synthesis of proteins
  • The second stage of gerpedelution - selection due to a conflict of interest in the environment in which, for the multiplication of RPD-type objects, the resources required for this multiplication ceased to exist
  • The third stage of gerpedelution - the reproduction with different types of defects within the RPD particles, which are the carriers of the designs (e.g. particles of RNA and DNA) for synthesising the protein structures

Biological evolution is an example of an autodynamic system, consisting of objects, the interactions between them and the self-reconstructing processes excited by the system itself. Note, the system in our case is constructed from: all living objects, their designs stored within them and the external conditions in which they operate - that is, the gravitational field in the water and air near the surface of the Earth. This system generates a process, which changes the system itself, which in turn changes the process generated by it and so on. [New definition: autodynamic system - system exciting processes which rebuilds the system].

Therefore the three stages of gerpedelution in terrestrial biological evolution were, in their initial phase, clearly separated from each other and occurred in sequence, but when feedback started to effect RPD-type objects, these steps began to overlap and intersect. From a certain point in biological evolution, we started to consider these RPD-type objects as living objects. An example of overlapping can be memetic designs, which are continually shaping living objects during its life and mitochondria, which are separately subjected to "their own biological evolution" within every cell of every living object.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Who are we in the end? We are a part of a force which acts badly in producing goodness. Paraphrasing "Faust" by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - So what then are living objects? The result of a process whereby the vast majority is killed by selection in order to create the perfect minority.

  • It is not true that, from the very beginning, Polish and Ukrainian were two separate languages, and dialects were their branches. No, at first there were numerous dialects, and only from them did the process of shaping the literary languages begin. And so, if there were two Ukrainian states, it could give birth to two different languages: A-Ukrainian and B-Ukrainian. Because the state itself does not create a nation, but it can affect the language and this, in turn, will shape the state. - [Janusz Korwin-Mikke, NCzas 19/2011, str. XLIV]

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Calhoun's experiment 
 

Definiens:

One of the most important sociological experiments in The Physics of Life, showing that even when living conditions are ideal, the population may self-destruct due to a dramitic decline to an unsustainable fertility rate.

 

Full description of John Calhoun's experiment.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Causative factors 
 

Definiens:

The generic name given to the factors of any kind, which cause a given object to meet the criteria of objectivity. These include initiators, constructors, destructors, and terminators.

 


 

Remarks:

  • William Shakespeare was the causative factor of the object "Macbeth".

  • The owner of a factory is the causative factor of the object "factory" and the process "efficient production" (a process can also be considered as an object).

  • In less general terms, causative factors could be called influencing factors.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Chain of layers 
 

Definiens:

Sequence of logic elements (e.g. events or genes) that undergo a certain criterion gives a logical truth as an answer. However, if any of the elements are added, removed or shifted, this criterion will no longer be met.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Victory is not the sum, but the correct sequence of events.
  • Projects have the character of a chain of layers. If you want to realize the project, not only the correctness of the implementation of the elements, but also the order in which they are installed.
  • The result is that the calculations taken for granted are based on a series of nested (chained) assumptions, each of which can be a source of error.

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Chain of succession 
 

Definiens:

The name consists of two words: Chain - indicates an ordering on the basis of the subsequent components one by one. Succession carries two meanings: direct - in the sense that there is a transfer of something (e.g. information or ownership) following the object before - and the second, which can be seen as controversial, the transfer is done because one of the objects was a success (e.g. reproductive success).

 


 

Remarks:

  • The line of succession of teaching: the concept present in Vaishnavism philosophy - chain of the transmission of knowledge: those who were not taught do not have the right to teach.

  • Not only have you been lucky enough to be attached since time immemorial to a favored evolutionary line, but you have also been extremely-make that miraculously-fortunate in your personal ancestry. Consider the fact that for 3.8 billion years, a period of time older than the Earth's mountains and rivers and oceans, every one of your forebears on both sides has been attractive enough to find a mate, healthy enough to reproduce, and sufficiently blessed by fate and circumstances to live long enough to do so. Not one of your pertinent ancestors was squashed, devoured, drowned, starved, stranded, stuck fast, untimely wounded, or otherwise deflected from its life's quest of delivering a tiny charge of genetic material to the right partner at the right moment in order to perpetuate the only possible sequence of hereditary combinations that could result-eventually, astoundingly, and all too briefly-in you.
    Bill Bryson "A Short History of Nearly Everything" page 3.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Chaos 
 

Definiens:

A property of a system which behaves radically differently depending on the initial conditions. An even infinitesimally small change in these conditions cause a significant change in the quantitative or qualitative behaviour of the system.

Symbol of chaos




* * *



Characteristic 
 

Definiens:

Characteristics it is a regularity in the response of a system to an external stimuli, regularity which can be described to some extent (e.g. by a function).

If we know the full set of stimuli that can affect the system, and we know how the system responds to each of them, we can say that we know all the possible behaviours of the system. However, because we are limited by the barrier in processing of information, in order not to remember the entire set of stimuli-response we try to look for some regularities that are called characteristic. If we manage to store such characteristic in the form of e.g. a function, it allows for low memory usage and their mathematical analysis.

Characteristic of the behaviour is the shortest description possible which gives the most information about the behaviour.




* * *



Cognitive models of The Physics of Life 
 

Definiens:

Simplified models of complex natural processes occurring in life. These include:

 


 




* * *



Concidence 
 

Definiens:

The notion of concidence (from the Latin concido - sink, die) is somewhat contradictory to emergence, it is a decline in the subjective perception of an observer, of certain properties within the rising complexity of the system. When we measure the temperature of water, we are not interested in the properties of the individual particles that it consists of.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Conflict of interest 
 

Definiens:

A situation in which:

  • object N wants exactly the same thing that object C wishes to avoid
  • both objects want the same thing, but only one of them can get it,

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Constructors 
 
Definiens:

Any factors extending the LOAO in any way. They strengthen the ability of an object to fulfill the criteria of objectivity. If we can measure the fulfillment of this criteria, the constructors increase its value.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Constructors of the object "fence" include: painting, maintenance and repair, search for paint to discover which protects the rails for longer;

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Criteria of objectivity 
 
Definiens:

The criteria by which it is stated whether an object remains the same object. They are neither objective nor universal - they are determined subjectively by the observer who defines the object. Other observers could either agree with this proposed criteria or make up their own.

Criteria of objectivity, although it is determined by the subjective observer, may have its own characteristics. The most important characteristics are:

  • Linearity - criterion is the sum of sub-criteria: CoO = P1+P2+P3+...

    Criterion of objectivity is more complete when more sub-criteria are fulfilled.

  • Conjunctional non-linearity - criterion is the (logical) conjunction of sub-criteria: CoO = P1*P2*P3*...

    If even one of the sub-criteria is not fulfilled, the criteria of objectivity is not met.

  • Recursional non-linearity - criterion is the recursion of sub-criteria: CoO = ...(P3(P2(P1)))

    If the criterion of objectivity is to be met, all sub-criteria have to be fulfilled in a given order. [ie. genetic code, sequence]




* * *



Curse of knowledge 
 

Definiens:

Blockage of cognitive abilities by knowledge already acquired.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Wilfred Trotter said:
    The human mind likes a strange idea as little as the body likes a strange protein and resists it with a similar energy.
    [...]
    The mental resistance to new ideas is partly due to the fact that they have to displace established ideas. New facts are not usually accepted unless they can be correlated with the existing body of knowledge; it is often not sufficient that they can be demonstrated on independent evidence. Therefore premature discoveries are usually neglected and lost. An unreasoning, instinctive mental resistance to novelty is the real basis of excessive scepticism and conservatism.

    Persecution of great discoverers was due partly to mental resistance to new ideas and partly to the disturbance caused to entrenched authority and vested interests, intellectual and material. Sometimes lack of diplomacy on the part of the discoverer has aggravated matters. Opposition must have killed at birth many discoveries.

    ["The Art of Scientific Investigation", W. I. B. Beveridge (1908-2006)]




* * *



Definiendum 
 
Definiens:

A word or expression that is being defined.

singular: definiendum (eng: name)
plural: definienda (eng: names)

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Definiens 
 

Definiens:

The word or words serving to explain the meaning of a definiendum

singular: definiens (eng: meaning)
plural: definientia (eng: meanings)

 


 

Remarks:

  • Definiendum and definiens are often confused, and therefore it may be helpful to use this rule of thumb: alphabetic principle - definiendum precedes definiens, where the first word is usually the meaning we are looking for

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Degeneration of power 
 
Definiens:

The natural behaviour of people in power which leads to

  • its abuse - in various aspects such as laws, taxes and physical and mental pressure
  • its facilitating - for example by raising inflation by printing money which leads to devaluation
  • creation of privileged groups - the guards power
These behaviours lead to
  1. reduction in the ability of those in power to manage effectively
  2. economic crises
  3. war
  4. detachment from those that rule to the population
  5. the creation of false theories of mystical, religious and scientific character legitimizing power (If in the minds of the people does not lurk the authority of God and the momentum of religion, the power of the prince or the state does not have its own authority. Because the religion easily stops the people when the power brings them to poverty, misery, destitution, hostility and despair. So there is nobody in power who does not use the authority of God as a regulator - Giordano Bruno )

 


 

Remarks:

  • In 1571, Moscow was invaded by the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray. According to V.B. Kobrin, the degenarated oprichnina showed they were completely unfit for combat. Accustomed to looting civilians, only a few of the tsar's guardsmen stood up for the war, so they accumulated only one regiment instead of five. After which, the tsar disbanded the oprichnina.




* * *



Desergy 
 

Definiens:

The unnecessary resources desired by a living object.

Desergy, as resergy, consists of: matter, energy and information. Therefore, it is not additive nor able to be conserved. It depends on time, environmental conditions and, moreover, objects and their interactions.

 


 

Examples:

  • absolute power;
  • extreme financial profit;
  • overaccumulation of wealth;
  • overaccumulation of political power;
  • life without effort and responsibility while being respected by others;

 

Remarks:

  • The concept of desergy should not be confused with the term resergy - the necessary resources;

  • The name "desergy" comes from an amalgamation of the words Desired resources & energy.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Destructors 
 
Definiens:

Any factors shortening the LOAO in any way. They weaken the ability of an object to fulfill the criteria of objectivity. If we can measure the fulfillment of this criteria, the destructors reduce its value.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Destructors of the object "fence" include: the weather, a child who hits the ball into it peeling paint and unreliable workers who painted it badly;

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Dichotomous Thinking 
 

Definiens:

also called black-and-white thinking or all-or-nothing thinking. The individual tends to think in extremes, for example: an individual's actions and motivations are all good or all bad with no middle ground. Dichotomous Thinking is a characteristic element of ***LLLreductionist thinking and because of the phenomenon of the ***LLLcurse of knowledge it can block the four types of higher level thinking: ***LLLsystemic thinking, ***LLLmultitudinal thinking, ***LLLgame thinking and ***LLLlife thinking.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Examples of dichotomous thinking are:

    • good – bad;
    • true – false;
    • innocent – guilty;
    • we – they;
    • friend - foe;
    • tyranny – liberty;
    • democracy – dictatorship;
    • justice - injustice;
    • civilisation – barbarianism;
    • capitalism – socialism.

  • It is a common defense mechanism used by many people.

  • According to Edward de Bono, dichotomous thinking is one of the flaws of traditional human thinking, because it prevents the perception of the entire spectrum of data of the given phenomena and what is around them. Such thinking is full of concept traps: dichotomous thinkers either consider a phenomenon as black or as white, they do not see any grey and they do not even take into consideration that grey might exist. Thinking around these extremes is practically impossible, as it is immediately overwhelmed by established patterns, which can not be questioned. For example, you moderately deny that you are not a democrate you are immediately classified as a fascist. If you begin to talk about socialism you are automatically classified as a Marxist, and so on [see Syndrome of Machiavelli - ed. JF]. The polarization is so vast that it does not allow any compromise.
    [Wikipedia, Pol., 2016.11.05]




* * *



Dilemma 
 
Definiens:

A dilemma (greek: δί-λημμα means "double proposition") is a situation in mathematical game theory, where we have two options, one of them results in certain benefits and losses and the other offers an alternative set of benefits and losses. In reality neither of the options are practically acceptable.

The natural basis of any kind of dilemma is a conflict of interest.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Disturbance 
 

Definiens:

Unpredictable factor influencing the process at a given moment.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Disturbance does not influence a system in a determined, because if it did so it would not be a disturbance, but a factor.

  • From the point of view of systems theory, disturbances are classified as destabilizing or insignificant. A sensitivity analysis studies the consequences of any disturbance on the system.

  • It is not widely known
    that in mountaineering
    even the smallest error
    can screw you up

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Duality of Nature 
 

Definiens:

Duality of Nature manifests itself in the cyclic grouping of particles and the subsequent separation of objects made by this grouping.

In space, particles tend to group into planets, stars, galaxies, etc. Each astronomical object is a single centre of concentration of matter. Larger objects absorb smaller objects. Black holes concentrate matter in the strongest way. When certain limits of concentration are overpassed, it explodes. An example of this could be the Big Bang.

The Earth's gravitational conditions, particularly in marine areas, make grouping particles spontaneously separate once certain limits have been exceeded. A specific type of such particles are RPD-type particles, and their evolutionary successors, such as synthesizing replicators.

Duality of Nature is due to a natural tendency of chemical particles to attract or repel other particles. Therefore, every interaction between particles can only be classified as attraction or repulsion.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Heraclitus of Ephesus::
    This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.

  • Aleksander Gudzowaty
    [...] everything in the world (also in the universe), is subjected to an objective law of nature called the "law of concentration". It is a model of development due to explosions which are a natural consequence of each concentration.

  • Portal of knowledge
    It is assumed (at present it is not completely certain) that if the density of matter in the universe exceeds a certain critical size, the end of it will lead to a great collapse - the collapse of all matter into a black hole. After this, possibly followed by the next Big Bang.

  • Another definiendum of duality of nature is the law of concentration.




* * *



Duo-definienda 
 

Definiens:

In other words : "Double meaning".
Two (or more) definienda for one definiens

Two (or more) meanings for one name

 


 

Remarks:

  • For example: "web" - 1/. a trap made by a spider or 2/. the internet - world wide web

  • One of the most dramatic duo-definientia in this context is "evolution" - the key to understanding life (Robin Dunbar) As of February 2013, the merriam-webster on-line dictionary reported at least 6 different definientia to this definiendum:

    	1/. one of a set of prescribed movements
    	2/. a: a process of change in a certain direction:  unfolding
    		b: the action or an instance of forming and giving something off:  emission
    		c: (1) a process of continuous change from a lower, simpler, or worse
    			   to a higher, more complex, or better state:  growth
    		   (2) a process of gradual and relatively peaceful social,
    			   political, and economic advance
    		d: something evolved
    	3/. the process of working out or developing
    	4/. a: the historical development of a biological group (as a race or species):  phylogeny
    		b: a theory that the various types of animals and plants have their origin in
    		   other preexisting types and that the distinguishable differences are due to
    		   modifications in successive generations; also :  the process described by this
    		   theory
    	5/. the extraction of a mathematical root
    	6/. a process in which the whole universe is a progression of interrelated phenomena

    6 different definientia plus 6 more sub-definientia and 2 more sub-sub-definientia!

  • "fly" - 1/. an insect or 2/. to move in or pass through the air with wings etc.

  • gay - can mean either: (1) brightly coloured, (2) light-hearted or (3) homosexual

  • An example of duo-definienda is the "rich man" - a person who has a large property, thought to be have been gained dishonestly. Ayn Rand's book "Atlas Shrugged" has shown that you can become rich in two ways: by producing goods and exchange them on the free market - Atlases, or using different types of coercion - looters.

     

    Rich man - maker
    rich by production of resources
    and free exchange
    Rich man - taker
    rich gatherer of resources
    by plunder, looting and robbery

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Duo-definientia 
 

Definiens:

In other words : "Double-named".
Two (or more) definientia for one definiendum

Two (or more) names for one meaning

 


 

Remarks:

  • Astronaut & cosmonaut
  • Space & Cosmos

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Ecosystem 
 

Definiens:

An ecosystem is made of two components:

  • biocenosis - interacting organisms living together in a certain biotope.

  • biotope – an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a space for the assemblage of living objects.

The ecosystem is a functional unit, in which there is an exchange of resergy (matter, energy and information) between the biocoenosis and the biotope.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Emergence 
 

Definiens:

Emergence (from the Latin emergo - appear, emerge) is the arising of new properties of a system when its components form into a given structure. Emergent property is due to the location and mutual interaction of the system's components.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Emotional thinking 
 

Definiens:

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Emotions 
 

Definiens:

typical set of reactions of a living object caused by typical set of external and/or internal factors. A set of reaction my be composed of: messages, behaviours, physiological processes etc. Emtions were built up into living object by process of biological evolution - they happened to be victory factors to recurring problems that faced our prevoluants.




* * *



Evoluant 
 

Definiens:

Every element in an evolutionary sequence which follows a given element.

 


 

Remarks:

  • For example: Homo erectus is an evoluant of Homo, Homo sapiens is evoluant of Homo erectus, Homo sapiens is evoluant of Pan troglodytes.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Evolution 
 

Definiens:

In fact, the definition of evolution is not clear and, what is more, ambiguous in two dimensions: it is used to name the process that created and continues to shape **life on Earth (see definition no. 1) and to name the so-called life cycle (see definition no. 2).

To explain why it is not clear: Charles Darwin used the term "evolution" to name the process responsible for the development of life on Earth. This incomplete description of its mechanisms, which, at that time, was seen and understood by Wallace and Darwin, and so brilliantly described by the latter, is long-established in the scientific world as the only competent and detailed explanation of the whole issue. The English-speaking world, unfortunately, ignored the information coming from Russia (Kropotkin, Mierieżkowski) and, because of this, there has not been a universally accepted, comprehensive, description of the process that created and continues to shape life on Earth over the next 150 years.

One of the attempts to do so was the replacement of "evolution" (in the above sense) by the concept of "natural selection", but this also proved not to be quite true.

Therefore, one of the fundamental tasks of The Physics of Life is the development of a complete and logical description of the process which brought life into existence and continues to shape the successive generations of living objects. The term of gerpedelution was proposed in order to give a basic model of this process. The process itself is called biological evolution. The word "evolution" should be understood, as the ancient Romans proposed, as "development" and nothing more.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • Evolution any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.[1] - [Wikipedia, eng., dated 20120208]
    Here, evolution is defined not as a process but as a change.

  • Stellar evolution the process by which a star undergoes a sequence of radical changes during its lifetime. - [Wikipedia, eng., dated 20120208]
    Here, evolution touches only one object throughout its existence

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Evolutionary Game Model
 

Definiens:


The Evolutionary Game Model transposes Darwinian mechanisms into a mathematical form by adopting a System Model of evolutionary processes with three main components - Population, Game, and Replicator Dynamics. The system process itself has four phases:
  1. The model (as evolution itself) deals with a Population (Pn). The population will exhibit Variation among Competing individuals. In the model this competition is represented by the Game.
  2. The Game tests the strategies of the individuals under the “rules of the game”. These rules produce different payoffs, in units of Fitness (the production rate of offspring). The contesting individuals meet in pairwise contests with others, normally in a highly mixed distribution of the population. The mix of strategies in the population affects the payoff results by altering the odds that any individual may meet up, in contests, with various strategies. The individuals leave the game pairwise contest with a resulting fitness determined by the contest outcome – generally represented in a Payoff Matrix.
  3. Based on this resulting fitness, each member of the population then undergoes replication or culling determined by the exact mathematics of the Replicator Dynamics Process. This overall process then produces a New Generation P(n+1). Each surviving individual now has a new fitness level determined by the game result.
  4. The new generation then takes the place of the previous one and the cycle begins again (and never stops). Mathematically speaking it is an Iterative process. Over time the population mix in such a system may converge to a stationary state – and if such a state cannot be invaded by any new “mutant strategies” it is by definition an Evolutionary Stable State (ESS).

 


 

Remarks:

  • Copied from Wikipedia Evolutionary game theory [2012.07.06]
  • If we assume that the stage of selection in gerpedelution is the game where the winners are allowed to reproduce we will get Evolutionary Game Model.




* * *



Evolutionary ratchet 
 

Definiens:

Vulnerability analysis of small evolution game leads to the conclusion that the process of biological evolution has a kind of ratchet mechanism. This mechanism is fully operational (it works as a real ratchet) when the selection criterion is extremely competitive, then if a better strategy appears in the population, there is no return to the worse strategies. The strategies can be at the same level, but there is no descent. However, if the selection criterion is not extremely competitive, worse strategies may appear.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The evolutionary ratchet mechanism prevents organic objects which, once entered into the path of biological evolution, cannot withdraw from this peculiar race (constant but non-linear improvement).
  • Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster in the work "The hipercycle" called this mechanism: the peculiar "once-forever" selection mechanism.




* * *



Evolutionary self-supporting object 
 

Definiens:

Any object which is stably maintained by the process of biological evolution.

 


 

Examples:

  • Each victory factor which enters into the evolutionary chain of succession for a considerably long (or permanent) period of time.
  • Sexual reproduction.
  • A pair of eyes.
  • Spine.
  • Religion.
  • The development of science giving the individual or social group a competitive advantage.




* * *



Evolutionary shaping 
 

Definiens:

One of the mechanisms of biological evolution that gradually produces the given properties of living objects and other objects submitted to biological evolution. This process is based on:

 


 

Remarks:

  • It can be named in an alternative way: subsequent selection process.

  • It can be named in an alternative way: evolutionary transformation process.

  • Evolutionary shaping transforms chemical affinity into pursuance.

  • Evolutionary shaping transforms RPD-type chemical particles into Living objects.

  • Evolutionary shaping creates specific memetic designs.
    If we consider, for example, a death that affects social groups caused by a disaster, war or plague. It can result in the death of all members of the group or only a few. In the latter case, we have to deal with two specific outcomes:

    1. only a few of the population dies
    2. only a few of the population survives

    Note that when death touches the population, the natural phenomenon is the emergence of stories of miraculous rescues. When few survive, "miraculous" means low probability. On the other hand, stories of miraculous deaths never emerge. Thus, biological evolution has natural tendency to produce myths of miraculous rescues (in The Physics of Life, the myth is an object), whilst never produces myths of miraculous deaths.

  • Ideas are constructors of evolutionary shaping when they help to fulfill the life purpose - in other words when idea brings benefits or increases fertility. Such ideas are evolutionary self-supporting objecta and self-spreading.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Ex nihilo 
 

Definiens:

Ex nihilo in Latin means "out of nothing". Often it is combined with the concept of creation, for example: Creatio ex nihilo which means "creation out of nothing". This refers mainly to philosophical and theological contexts, but can be found in other areas.

So far no one has managed to prove that something can arise from absolutely nothing. We know what matter is, but we do not know either how it was created or how it came to be. It seems, rather, that it should be Nothing (no matter) instead of Something (matter). Intuition says that a state of emptiness is more natural.

Very similar to ex nihilo are natural phenomena as:

  • self-excitation for example vibrations, but this can occur only when it is powered by an external source of (constant) power;
  • self-creation due to emergence
  • self-creation of information but for this, information carriers are required.

 

Therefore, it can be said that we know the three processes of the creation of quasi ex nihilo:

  1. Self-excitation: consisting of the transformation of a constant stream of energy into a pulsating phenomenon;

  2. Emergence: the formation of new features within the system, a result of mutual interaction of objects composing the system.

  3. Self-creation of information: due to the composition of self-arranged chains of different objects or the same objects but whose features are in different states. If interpreted, these chains are information.

 

Life was created by the juxtaposition of the above-mentioned processes. There remains some key questions: "How was matter created?", and if matter always existed "Why is there SOMETHING in nature, rather than NOTHING?" .

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Experiment 2,4,6 
 

Description:

This experiment shows that the first data and analysis on a given topic block the access to further data and subsequent analysis.

This experiment is only successful when the participant does not know anything about it - blind experiment. This experiment can only be performed with one person.

 

Course of experiment "2,4,6"

The experimentor writes a sequence of three numbers "2,4,6" and explains the experiment to the subject, saying:

  • This sequence was written according to a certain rule.
  • Your goal is to find this rule.
  • To do this, you need to write a sequence of three numbers, and the experimentor will tell you if your sequence conforms to the rule. This will be repeated as many times as you think are necessary.
  • Note, you can write as many sequences as you want, but you have only one chance to specify the rule. if you are right - you win, if not - you lose.
  • Do you need to hear the explanation again? Do you have any questions?
  • If there are no queries, the experiment may begin.
  • Subject gives a sequence of three numbers, the experimentor writes it down and, after analysis, marks "+" if the sequence fulfills the rule and a "-" if it does not.
  • The experiment continues until the participant announces that they know the rule. The participant states the rule and the experimentor states whether the answer is correct or not.
  • The rule is simple: "The next number will be greater than the previous one"

 

Main features of experiment "2,4,6"

As a rule, the majority of the participants

  • understands the rules and refuses to have the instructions repeated.
  • create a rule which satisfies the given sequence and continue to give further sequences which fulfil their rule.
    By doing this they try to convince themselves that their rule is right and cease looking for the rule of the experimentor.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Professors are more likely to lose, as they generally look for more complicated solutions. However, students are more likely to search for quicker, less complex answers. Subsequently, the students are more likely to win.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Feature 
 

Definiens:

an individual, measurable property of the observed object

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Feedback 
 

Definiens:

A coupling in which one object influences the other, and the second influences the first one. There is, therefore, the case that the first object changes the functionality of the second object, and these changes, in turn, alter the functionality of the first object. Thus, the first object influences itself, through a mediator, the second object.

 


 

Quotes (in Google Polish) from literature:




* * *



First law of The Physics of Life 
 

Contents:

The source of incomes (of resergy) shapes the tactics of structure and tactics of behaviour.




* * *



Flow system/object 
 

Definiens:

A system or object whose structure is a temporary state created by flowing streams of energy, material or information.

 

Full definition of a flow system.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The scientific term for this system is open system
  • Examples of flow systems: a flame, a vortex, a bank account, a company and the most complex one a living object.




* * *



Four ways of spending money 
 

Definiens:

Milton Friedman (1912-2006) described the four basic ways to spend money, to be more precise, four types of optimization used depending on the conditions in which a person spends money:

I. Your own money on yourself.
When you do that, why then you really watch out what you’re doing, and you try to get the most for your money.

We spend sparingly and wisely, so that for the least amount of money we get as much as possible. As a rule, we do not take the decision lightly, we consider, consult with professionals, look for information, advice, special offers and discounts.

II. Your own money on somebody else.
For example, I buy a birthday present for someone. Well, then I’m not so careful about the content of the present, but I’m very careful about the cost.

This way includes, for example, spending on gifts, costs incurred to support the family or salaries for employees. We spend as before: sparingly and wisely so, for example, the cheapest gift that would have the best impression. However, since we do not know the real needs of the recipient and how much it is needed, we can be led by the influence of advertising, suggestions, ideology and concern about our relatives or by being a scrooge. We can spend irrationally: buy unnecessary things or, for example, in the case of employees, not pay them enough.

III. Somebody else’s money on myself.
If I spend somebody else’s money on myself, then I’m sure going to have a good lunch!

There is no incentive to save - we spend all that we can, and our needs increase dramatically. We do not check prices as vigorously as when paying with our own money. And as a rule we find intelligent justification for large expenditures.

IV. somebody else’s money on somebody else.
I’m not concerned about how much it is, and I’m not concerned about what I get.

Expenses are not optimized. As a rule, in such transactions, we are trying to indirectly fulfill our own interests. For example, to show how generous we are and suggest that other people should act in the same way towards us.




* * *



Game 
 

Definiens:

A game is an activity (of structure(s) or behavior(s)) performed by an object, aimed to acquire the most of the desired resources, which are insufficient for all objects.

 


 

Remarks:

  • A game is accomplished by a set of many subtle and complicated operations, performed by one object (or a group of objects), to reach (or do) something whilst, another object (or another group of objects) tries to prevent the operations being successful.




* * *



Game within a group 
 

Definiens:

Processes occurring in a social group (even the seemingly dynamic), due to the Nature of an Honest Man and such phenomena as: Natural Pressure for Social Exploitation and Prisoner's dilemma.

In short, it concerns the use of a group by an individual within which it operates, for their own purposes.

 


 

Examples:

  • The goalkeeper of one team taking bribes to allow the other team to score a specific amount of goals.

 

Quotes from literature:




* * *



Game's characteristic elements 
 

Definiens:

Common features occurring in all kinds of games. These include, amongst others:

 

  • Common tactics:

    • Typical tactics of behaviour.

    • Tactics of structure.

    • Profilelessness: playing in such a way that the opponent can not recognize distinctive sets of tactics.

    • Tactics of disinformation: pursuance is a process based on a feedback mechanism from which decisions are made based on the information collected about the adversary. Disinformation tactics distort the feedback information received by the opponent.

    • Breaking the rules: gaining advantage by conscious or unconscious violation of the rules of the game.

    • Forcing a rule change: When one of the players, or group, changes the rules for their own benefit. Of course, this leads to everyone else losing.

    • Double-threat: when the attacker puts themselves in a position where any countermove will still lead to a deficit for the defender. In chess it is called a "fork". In basketball, commonly occurs triple-therat.

    • Sacrifice: to lose one member or piece for the benefit of the whole.

    • Innovation: introducing a completely new element to the game, one that the rules do not prohibit.
      Examples include:

      • the Fosbury Flop in the high jump, introduced by Dick Fosbury,
      • the ski jumping "V", introduced by John Boklöv,
      • during the 1908 Olympics in Paris, a Chinese contestant in the pole vault was innovative. An acrobat, he placed his pole next to the barrier, climbed it to the top and jumped over the bar. The referees stated that it was illegal because he was supposed to run. The Chinese participant took his pole, ran with it, placed it on the ground and repeated the previous actions. After this, the law was changed so each contestant in the pole vault is not allowed to change the grip of one hand.

     

  • Common elements of pursuance:

    • Ju-do: a way to defeat en enemy by using its own resources. Examples are: when the opponent pushes, pull them, to use the opponents force against them. This name is Japanese in origin, meaning "gentle way" of winning. This definiendum in The Physics of Life is written with a hyphen to differentiate it from the sport.

    • Snooker: blocking an opponent in such a way that they can only perform complex or senseless actions.
    • Fork: execution of a single movement, causing two or more simultaneous threats to the enemy.

    • Unbalancing: when concentration plays a very important role, this method secures an advantage by disrupting the opponents decision-making processes. It attacks emotions to overcome rational thinking or learned habits. Examples include: time-wasting or calling them names.

    • Counter-attack: an automatic response to a predictable attack from an opponent to put them on the defensive or to lose.

    • Dummy: a feint which causes a typical reaction from an enemy which allows an immediate counter-attack.

    • Combination: a series of counter-attacks and dummies.

    • Speculative attack: collecting information on the characteristics of an opponent by performing attacking actions, designed to recognise typical reactions, and from this develop an effective plan of attack.

    • Euphoria from success: by performing perfectly, gradually becoming over-confident and allowing the opponent to gain the upper hand and eventally become victorious.

    • Pyrrhic victory: achievin victory by using nearly or all resources. However, the level of resources used make it like a loss.

     

  • Common elements of team games:

    • Cohesion in play: predicting how your partner will perform and act accordingly. In rugby, a pass should be thrown into the space ahead of the receiver. Both players will know that the receiver will perfectly intercept the flight of the ball. A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be. - Wayne Gretzky [by the Official Encyclopedia of the NHL, Gretzky is "the best player ever"].

    • Game anticipation: predicting how your opponent will perform and act accordingly. Again in rugby, the defender predicting the pass and moving to intercept it and stop it reaching the opposing player. Commonly known as to out-think or out-plan an opponent.

     

  • Characteristic concepts:

    • Overachiever: a person who achieves/wins more than they would expect.

    • Underachiever: a person who achieves/wins less than they would expect.

    • Overconfidence: a state of mind where a person believes they will win with no effort. Usually, it leads to misfortune.

    • Underconfidence: a state of mind where a person believes they will lose regardless of the effort they put in. Usually, it leads to misfortune.

    • Blame Transference: a characteristic behaviour of a person who has lost. The individual is never to blame, it is always the opponent cheating, the referee making the wrong decisions, a team-mate playing badly etc.

    • Lucky Bastard: usually, at a pivotal point in a game, a player undeservedly wins due to good fortune.

     

 


 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Game theory thinking 

Definiens:

Game theory thinking is a way of analysing reality in categories related to conflicts of interest.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Typical tactics in the theory of games: playing in tempo with your team-mates, anticipation of your opponents next move.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Genetic chain of succession 
 

Definiens:

In gerpedelution (and thus in biological evolution) a chain of living objects, understood as a sequence of carriers of information, which survive. They do survive and produce descendents, because they carry the "fittest" information.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Each of us is a part of the genetic chain of succession, but many of us will be the final link.

  • A family having three children splits its genetic chain of succession into three.

 

Associated concepts:

  • Reproductive success




* * *



Gerpedelution 
 

Definiens:

A cyclic process consisting of three consecutive and repeated stages:

  1. Production of a set of objects based on a set of designs
  2. Selection from the produced objects; those that fulfill certain criteria (the so-called selection criterion) are selected
  3. Copying, (sometimes/always) with (slight/important) changes, the designs of the objects which have come through the previous stage. The resulting set of designs are directed to the next production stage.

 

Full definition of gerpedelution.




* * *



Gerpedelutionary classification of groups 
 

Definiens:

We distinguish two kinds of groups according to how they pass through the selection process:

  • WSS (Wholly Selected Systems) - a group of objects selected as a whole in the gerpedelution process. In the particular case of biological evolution, WSS group is called a living object, which according to the elements it is built of, belongs to a given organizational level.

  • PSS (Partially Selected Systems) - a group of objects that are selected not as a group, but as singular objects. In the case of biological evolution, an example of a PSS group is a social group.




* * *



Glubb cycle 
 

Definiens:

Life cycle of an empire described by John Glubb. The stages of the rise and fall of great nations are as follows:

  1. The Age of Pioneers (outburst)
  2. The Age of Conquests
  3. The Age of Commerce
  4. The Age of Affluence
  5. The Age of Intellect
  6. The Age of Decadence.

 


 

Remarks:

  1.  

    Generation Characteristic behaviour Source of motivation Ideology, Religion Resources
    Age of Pioneers This generation is extremely motivated, wants to improve their material situation at all costs. Distinguished not only by victories in battles, but also by boundless enterprise in any field. Is ready to improvise and experiment, and draw immediate conclusions from defeats and setbacks. Not bound by tradition, is able to use everything that is available for their own purposes. If one method fails, they try something else. Strong sense of group belonging.

    It is also the stage when leaders appear, a result of biological evolution. These leaders came from the fighters or strategists.

    Members of this generation are very efficient in fulfilling pursuant processes.

    The behaviour of the pioneers is characterized by incredible initiative and entrepreneurship, courage and boldness. These values cause that a formidable nation can rise from "barbarians", often quickly. Early victories are achieved mainly due to reckless courage and daring initiative.

    Untrammelled by laws, traditions or textbooks [therefore, non-existant spate of messages], practical actions are applied as a method to solve any problem.

    What motivates people the most is the hunger for resources.

    This generation is vulnerable to any ideology that cements the hierarchy and legitimizes theft, looting and robbery, allows any atrocity towards outsiders and promotes sacrifice.

    War is full of highly non-linear phenomena, and these are the initiators and constructors of religion.

    This stage usually starts with a surplus in population and a lack of resources. These conditions are typical for biedocraticization , as well as creating a "lust to coerce" when fighting for resources. When an opportiunity to rob external territories arises, it leads to forced cooperation. So the resources are mainly acquired externally.

    Age of Conquests

    An attacked civilization defends itself using sophisticated weapons, military organization and discipline. However, the attackers quickly discover these qualities, appreciate them and adopt them. As a result, the second phase of expansion becomes more structured, disciplined and professional.

    In other areas, the primary bold initiative is geographical exploration. For example, populating new countries, penetrating unknown forests, conquering wild mountains and sailing uncharted seas. This nation is confident and optimistic, and begins to treat those they have conquered as "decadent".

    The methods employed tend to be practical and experimental, both in government and in warfare, for they are not tied by centuries of tradition [According to me, this is more a question of a spate of messages which block flexibility. - JF.], as happens in ancient empires. Moreover, the leaders are free to use their own improvisations, not having studied politics or tactics in schools or in textbooks.

    Leaders are established and have already a strong power base, so they begin to create laws in order to ensure a long reign.

    There is still a hunger for resources, but now they are at war and must hunger for intellectual development. To win in a pursuant manner, the invaders develop the skill of learning quickly.

    Age of Commerce

    When the Age of Conquest is finishing, there is no way to become rich by conquering others. So it became obvious that people gained wealth and titles in a peaceful way. They did this by commerce and production. The invaders absorbed skills and technology of those they have conquered and created a business out of it. A good example of this is the colonisation of India by the British Empire. Money became more important than honour.

    A consequence of this is the next period - The Age of Affluence.

    The quest for glory has been replaced by the quest for money. Because the times were less physically dangerous, the highest earners were generally those who talked rather than produce or fight.

    Age of Affluence

    The decline in courage, enterprise and a sense of duty is, however, gradual.

    The first direction in which wealth injures the nation is a moral one. Money replaces honour and adventure as the objective of the best young men. Moreover, men do not normally seek to make money for their country or their community, but for themselves. Gradually, and almost imperceptibly, the Age of Affluence silences the voice of duty. The object of the young and the ambitious is no longer fame, honour or service, but cash.

    Education undergoes the same gradual transformation. No longer do schools aim at producing brave patriots ready to serve their country.

    Students no longer attend college to acquire learning and virtue, but to obtain those qualifications which will enable them to grow rich. The same situation is everywhere evident among us in the West today.

    Money is in better supply than courage, subsidies instead of weapons are employed to buy off enemies. To justify this departure from ancient tradition, the human mind easily devises its own justification. Military readiness, or aggressiveness, is denounced as primitive and immoral. Civilised peoples are too proud to fight. The ability and the will to defend a nation gradually declines within the population.

    The hunger for resources disappears and is replaced by the hunger for pleasure. Hedonism becomes the strongest motivator.

    Age of Intellect

    The ambition of the young, once engaged in the pursuit of adventure and military glory, and then in the desire for the accumulation of wealth, now turns to the acquisition of academic honours.

    However, although great discoveries are made which can benefit everybody, there is also a lot of inactivity.

    Perhaps the most dangerous by-product of the Age of Intellect is the unconscious growth of the idea that the human brain can solve the problems of the world. Even on the low level of practical affairs this is patently untrue. Any small human activity, the local bowls club or the ladies’ luncheon club, requires for its survival a measure of self-sacrifice and service on the part of the members. In a wider national sphere, the survival of the nation depends basically on the loyalty and self-sacrifice of the citizens. The impression that the situation can be saved by mental cleverness, without unselfishness or human self-dedication, can only lead to collapse.

    Another remarkable and unexpected symptom of national decline is the intensification of internal political hatreds.

    One of the oft-repeated phenomena of great empires is the influx of foreigners to the capital city. These newcomers can constitute a weakness in many directions. First - they effect national policy. Second - they will be less loyal and protecting primarily their own interests in times of emergency and eventually they can turn against the host nation in order to dominate.

    Hunger for titles and positions rather than real skills and knowledge. All about the theory rather than the practice.

    Age of Decadence

    The people in power become accustomed to power. They become less productive yet give themselves substantial, but injustified, incerases in wages. They acquire more "toys" that they think they deserve. Those with power benevolantly try to meet all the needs of the people including healthcare, education and even payments for not working. All of this need money so those in power create (inflate) money, increase taxes, go into debt or have a war to boost the economy.

    All of these lead to the eventual fall of the empire. As history shows, the fall may occur in different ways.

    One thinks that they should be paid what they perceive they deserve. One must have the material goods that highlight their perceived greatness.

 

Links:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Hasek's Law 
 

Definiens:

1. There has never been a situation where there is no situation.

2. Something always happens.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Hierarchy of needs 
 

Definiens:

In psychology - the sequence of the most basic needs (resulting from bodily functions) to the needs of a higher level, which activates only after satisfying the needs of the lower level.

 




* * *



Hoyle's Paradox
 

Description:

The Physics of Life can not help but comment on the often-cited speculation regarding the probability of the emergence of life, such as, for example, described by F. Hoyle (1915-2001) and NC Wickramasinghe (1939-) in Evolution from space: Proteins, necessary for life, are built of very complex molecules. What is the probability of an accidental creation of even quite simple protein molecules in the primordial soup? Evolutionists acknowledge that this probability is 1 in 10 to the power of 113 (1 in 10113). Meanwhile, mathematicians state that an event, which the probability of occurrence is lower than 1 in 1050 WILL NEVER HAPPEN. One can be convinced about the unprobability of such an event knowing that the number 10113 is greater than the estimated number of all atoms in the universe. Some proteins serve as building blocks and the others for the enzymes. The latter speeds up chemical reactions in the cell, without which it would die. To operate this process, it needs not a few, but up to 2000 different protein enzymes. What is the probability of an accidental origin of such proteins? It is one in 1040 000! "It is such an extremely small probability," says Hoyle, "that such an event would have been unthinkable even if the whole universe consisted of the primordial soup." Then he adds: "Even though one's belief or education, without prejudice, allowed him to accede to the notion that life arose on Earth [spontaneously], this simple calculation totally negates the concept."

It doesn't negate anything! Indeed, the calculated likelihood of such a protein is extremely small, but the assumption that each particle combination is equally likely is wrong. That is the first thing. Second, the process of evolutionary improvement is not a linear process, it has its accelerator characteristics (like the exponential or logarithmic), which in our terrestrial, sufficiently stable, conditions quickly (e.g. "only" a few billion years) brought into existence, and still shapes, not only proteins but also plants, animals and humans. The process of evolutionary improvement acts on all living objects and is not subject to discussion. However, that life arose on Earth or was accidentally brought here by a cellestial collision is not important for us. To reiterate: the mechanism of life seeks for an opportunity for an improvement over a long time, the solution is found by chance and quickly perfected. As we will show, life from outer space is much less probable than its emergence here on Earth and on any other, Earth-like, heavenly body.

To embarrass the quoted professors from the University of Cardiff, who have stated that the likelihood of the emergence of life on Earth is "a totally negated concept", let us respond to their simple calculation with an equally simple calculation of our own. Let us calculate the number of bacterium there would be in four and a half billion years, assuming that they reproduce once a day. [Replication of the elements within the cell runs a lot faster: DNA replication proceeds at a speed of one thousand nucleotides per second! Therefore, assuming that the rate of replication is, for example, one second, from one single replicator, after two days there would be 1052016 copies. It seems that the cited professors did not consider this phenomenon in their calculations. However the fastest cellular organisms reproduce approximately every 20-25 minutes in favorable conditions.] So, the first day there are two, the next - four, the third eight, and so on. The general formula is known even by schoolchildren: where n equals the number of days, their number should amount to 2n. So how many of them should there be, lets say after 1 642 500 000 000 days (equivalent to 4.5 billion years times 365 days)? The answer should amaze and give food for thought: 10500 000 000 000! It makes the "extremely small probability" (1040 000 to remind you) shown by the quoted professors pale into insignificance. Our simple calculation shows that with such a rate of reproduction (remember - one division per day, and the bacteria under favorable conditions - when all the necessary resources are available - can multiply up to seventy times faster) nature has 10500 000 000 000 trials to build "a totally random" chain of particles, such us human DNA. So, gentlemen professors, you calculated your probability wrong! We came to our results assuming total randomness of the event, but biological evolution has a powerful booster in the form of natural selection! To realize the speed of this process we need to do another calculation.

The average weight of a single bacteria is estimated to be about 1*10-12 of a gram, and the mass of the Earth is 6*1027 grams. A simple calculation shows that only 133 divisions are required, from one bacteria, to found a colony in excess of the mass of the Earth! Obviously this is not possible because the Earth does not have as many free resources as required. Let's imagine that we have a great tissue culture with the volume of Lake Baikal - the lake with the most volume in the world. In this arena, only 100 divisions are required to force bacterium to "struggle for existence". It could happen in less than two days.




* * *



"I/group" dilemma 
 

Definiens:

A key dilemma for game theory which refers to societies. Particular interests of individuals and social groups are so strong that all members of society are not able to behave pro-socially. Most profitable for the individual is to act selfishly when the rest of the society acts unselfishly.

The orthogonality of the I/group is reflected in the fact that the enrichment of individuals impoverishes society in which they operate.

In most cases, the so-called "life payout tables" are naturally arranged so that the selfishness of individuals causes (total) loss in society i.e. even those individuals lose in the long-term, and this is due to the impoverishment of society. For example, the holdings of the leaders of the communist countries of Eastern Europe at the end of the twentieth century was lower than the average citizen in the Western European countries such as Germany, England and France.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The description of this dilemma by Rafal A. Ziemkiewicz: Free market - the essence of the problem is that it is beneficial to the public as a whole, but unnecessary to anyone or any social group, unless both think about their own business. The free market is the best way to ensure the development of a civilization, providing prosperity and increasing the quality of life. But from the point of view of each individual: the worker, the farmer, the politician, and above all, the governmental clerk, it is convenient to spoil the free market, by receiving a governmental grant or by paying less due to social aid instead of producing and negotiating prices. Contrary to the stereotype, it is also convenient for the entrepreneur. The more he prospers, the less he likes that someone competes against him, forcing him to continuously strive for lower prices and higher quality, and may even make him a pauper. Everyone, including the rich man, wants to feel safe. So it is likely that he accepts the safety given to him by a brotherhood with power and getting sponsorship in return which guarantees that he will maintain his high position. As a matter of fact, amongst the supporters of the free market, are those that are enriching themselves and climbing up the social ladder. But this support only lasts while they are successful.

    I sometimes think that the rearranging of this social Rubik's Cube (acceptance by the will of the majority of what is good for everybody, but it is bad for each individual or group) is a kind of maturity test, provided to us by fate or, if you will, some cosmic being, which we are failing at the moment. [Rafał A. Ziemkiewicz, "In brief"]

    It's not a cosmic being, but pure Physics of Life. The natural tendency of social systems is to continuously oscillate. These oscillations are caused by this and other dilemmas.

  • Tragedy of the commons: discusses the concept of a microeconomic social trap in which the self-interest of one or more of the people in the community leads to a loss for the community as a whole. The concept leads to the conclusion that unrestricted access to limited public goods - such as pasture - leads to their overexploitation.

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Ideology 
 

Definiens:

Ideology is a collection of beliefs held by an individual or a social group. It can be described as a set of conscious and unconscious ideas which make up one's behaviours, goals, expectations, and motivations.

 


 

Remarks:




* * *



Information 
 

Definiens:

(Interpreted) sequence of states.

More about "information" in Polish.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • Information, in its most basic technical sense, is an ordered sequence of symbols. [Wikipedia-eng]

 

Remarks:

  • The word "interpreted" was deliberately included in brackets, because a sequence of states is (potential) information, and the (potential) information only becomes (appropriate) information only when it is interpreted.




* * *



Initiators 
 
Definiens:

Any factors bringing an object into existence.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Initiators of the object "fence" include: demand, threat, safety, decision, aesthetics;

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Intelligence 
 

Definiens:

It is a measure of the efficiency of the accomplishment of pursuance.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • Intelligence is what you use when you do not know what to do. - Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and psychologist.

  • General intelligence is the ability to adapt to new conditions and to perform new tasks by the use of thinking. - William Stern, a German psychologist and philosopher.

  • Intelligence is the ability to quickly find appropriate solutions in a situation that seems (to observers) to require an enormous research effort. - Douglas Lenat, Edward Feigenbaum, researchers dealing with artificial intelligence.

  • Intelligence is the ability to optimize the use of scarce resources - including time - to achieve profits. - Raymond Kurzweil, inventor and futurist.

  • Ability to achieve real results.

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Iterated cooperation dilemma 
 

Definiens:

A key example in mathematical game theory to illustrate that the trust and cooperational behaviours of the members of a group are essential to guarantee the survival of the group.

Iterated cooperation dilemma occurs when two players play consecutive prisoner's dilemma games and change their strategy according to the previous actions of their opponent and must stay alive (cannot have zero points or less).

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Iterated prisoner's dilemma 
 

Definiens:

A key example in mathematical game theory to illustrate the dependency of economical development of the group on the trust and cooperational behaviours of its members.

Iterated prisoner's dilemma occurs when two players play consecutive prisoner's dilemma game and change their strategy according to the previous actions of their opponent.

 

Full description of "Iterated prisoners dilemma"

 


 

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Jones' experiment 
 

Definiens:

One of the most important sociological experiments for The Physics of Life, showing that a group of young ordinary people can be programmed to hold extreme views and behaviour (fascist) within only five days.

Ron Jones, a history teacher in an American high school, explained how the German population could accept the actions of the Nazi regime during the Second World War. During his "Contemporary World History" class, Jones found it difficult to explain how the German people could accept the actions of the Nazis, and decided to create a social movement as a demonstration of the appeal of fascism. Over the course of five days, Jones conducted a series of exercises in his classroom emphasizing discipline and community, intended to model certain characteristics of the Nazi movement.
[Wikipedia 2015.05.12]

This experiment shows how easy it is to transform a group of ordinary teenagers into extreme fascists using simple methods, in only five days.

Description of the experiment made by Ron Jones

 


 

Links:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Key dilemma of ruling 
 

Definiens:

When creating a government that gives one the power over another, there are two main problems: what kind of power and how much the government should have to be able to fairly run and control the society, and what kind of power and how much for the society to have a means of control over those in power to stop them abusing their position.

 


 

Remarks:

  • This dilemma was first formulated by James Madison (1751-1836), one of the authors of the constitution of the United States:
    “If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions.”

  • If the Constitution and the awareness of the citizens do not provide this balance, it contributes to the development of tyranny.

  • Governance, then, is an example of an orthogonal issue.

  • Another description of this dilemma::

    [...] it is an attempt to answer the question of how to manage relations between the state and the individual, so that the state does not devour human freedom, for which it always has an undaunted appetite. On the other hand - that human wilfulness does not destroy the state - because it is also needed.
    [...]
    mutual recognition of freedom required to refrain from offending the others. This offence I call willfulness.


    [St. Michalkiewicz, "Freedom & willfulness", Najwyższy Czas 9/2011, str. XLV]




* * *



Law of comparative advantage 
 

Definiens:

The law of comparative advantage says that the set of flow objects, in a natural way, develop specializations and production/consumption exchanges of resources, provided that there are relative differences in the cost of their production. It is a natural tendency of such systems, which results from the fact that they are submitted to biological evolution. So these differences in the cost production are the result of disturbances in duplication.

The third essential feature of biological evolution is due to the law of comparative advantage.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Law of concentration 
 

Definiens:

All matter in the Universe tends to concentrate, each astronomical object is a centre of concentration. Larger objects absorb smaller ones. The most concentrated matter is called a black hole. When concentrated matter reaches its certain critical value an explosion occurs, for example, The Big Bang.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Law of dependency of life 
 

Definiens:

Features and behaviours of a living object are dependent on:

  1. external conditions,
  2. its species evolutionary history , and
  3. its own experiences.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Leftist 
 

Definiens:

a man preaching general, indisputable, moral ideology, without making people aware and using the mechanism of Natural Pressure for Social Exploitation, in order to get their resources. Theoretically, distributing to the needy, but in practice he gives only what remains after taking his share, which he considers due to him. The Nature of an Honest Man causes that the Leftist takes as much as possible.

 


 

Remarks:

  • If someone is not able to produce anything that anyone else would like to buy, Leftism starts.

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Life 
 

Definiens:

Defined on 2009.12.14:

it is a feature of a set of synthesizing replicators absorbing external resources to (re)build themselves by assembling and placing its elements based on the information contained within them, until division. This behaviour of replicators generates the process of biological evolution, which in turn, shapes subsequent generations of synthesizing replicators.

 

Defined on 2015.03.06:

Life is a game for acquiring resources led by self-replicating objects. [Note, this definition applies to objects that are traditionally considered to be alive. There is a high probability that self-replicating computer viruses or other self-replicating alien objects undergo a process similar to biological evolution. It will probably fulfill the conditions of this definition, but would compete (play) for different kinds of resources than liposomes, nucleotides and amino acids. Then this kind of "life" would need to be clarified using different adjectives. If it happens, our life would have to be termed as "terrestrial life".]

The simplest self-replicating objects are RPD-type chemical particles, which we know as: liposomes (spherical membrane built with free phospholipids), RNA (linear, unbranched polymers of nucleotides built with deoxyribose) and DNA (linear, unbranched polymers built with ribose nucleotides). These particles, playing for resources, needed for them to (re)build, generate the process of biological evolution on the principle of self-excitation. The basic model of this process is gerpedelution, which consists of three cyclically repeating, consecutive, stages of: building of objects, selection of objects and the duplication, with alterations, of the designs of selected objects. Biological evolution, with the (living) objects submitted to it, constitute an autodynamic system. In short, a system that changes features of the objects submitted to it, and these, in turn, change the features of the same process.

Self-replicating objects need resources to build themselves, and because they replicate, sooner or later the resources will start to run out and the objects will be forced to operate in an environment of limited resources. Their strategy is to acquire the necessary resources to build themselves. They use two main tactics within this strategy: tactics of structure - better acquisition of resources is possible due to the placement of elements; and tactics of behaviour - better acquisition of resources is possible due to given actions and reactions. If the selection is strong enough, only the objects absorbing resources in an optimal way can pass through. It means that biological evolution becomes a process of perfecting both of these tactics only when there is strong selection. Because the game has a lot of objects competing for the same resources at the same time, this improvement is carried out simultaneously in two orthogonal (perpendicular) directions: better at winning conflict situations and/or better collaborating. And this means that biological evolution transforms RPD-type chemical particles, in its subsequent generations, into the following organizational levels:

Level Name Description
0
RPD-type particles Because these particles are "purely chemical" they are the output objects for future generations of objects that we consider to be alive. They can be considered as zero level of life.
1
Synthetizing replicators are aggregated objects comprised of RPD-type objects, which not only absorb resources and divide, but also produce new chemical entities (on Earth - proteins) from the available elements (onEarth - amino acids) based on the designs contained within them (on Earth, these are also RPD-type particles RNA & DNA). Due to this, both tactics used became more and more advanced over subsequent generations.
2
Cellular replicators - procariotic cells For example, mitochondria and bacteria are life-forms of the second organisational level because they are composed of cooperating elements of levels zero and one.
3
Eucariotic replicators - eucariotic cells are the aggregated elements of organisational levels zero, one and two - eukaryotic cells are the next organizational level of life. The principle of nesting elements is similar, to some extent, to a Russian Doll.
4
Multi-cellular replicators - organisms objects built from eukaryotic cells, be it a man or an ant are forms of the fourth organizational level of life.
5
Social replicators - superorganisms communities of multicellular replicators, undergoing the WSS-type of selection, such as ants, wasps and termites, are living objects of the fifth organizational level of life.

The Physics of Life deals with the creation and analysis of cognitive and predictive models concerning life.

 

Defined on 2015.03.06:

Life is a side product (a result) of a tangle of an unimaginably large number of processes, not necessarily nice and pleasant, generated by the RPD phenomenon.

Defined on 2015.05.23:

Life is a never-ending competition between units of information, which actively absorb the external components necessary to build themselves and multiply. The set of units of information which triggered the process of biological evolution, and this process changes the subsequent generations of theses units.

I named this definition "Saint John/Dawkins definition of life", the former spoke of information from nothing (which become flesh), the latter talked about selfish information.

 


 

Life purpose 
 

Definiens:

Original: Absorbs until division;
Secondary*: Survive and multiply

 


 

Remarks:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Lifecycle of a human 
 

Definiens:

  1. Consumer's period - childhood
  2. Producer's period - optional (see Atlases/Looters)
  3. Consumer's period - old age

From a practical point of view, the best seems to be the Buddhist approach to the Human Lifecycle:

Characteristic Female Male Recommendations
00 Post-conception No concept of Self
01 Infancy

Total reliance on caregiver. Developing awareness.

02 Childhood

Acquiring and developing primordial abilities. Learning through play.

03 Adolescence

Emotional growth

04 Life-partner search

Hormone explosion desire for independence, sexual growth, emotional maturity.

05 Parenthood

Responsibility and caregiving compulsion.

06 Full maturity

Relative independence from caregiving, emotional freedom. Period of personal achievment.

07 Pre-retirement

Awareness of mortality. Physical degradation. Reduction of social activity

08 Retirement

Gradual increase in the focus of Self. Degradation of basic motor functions.

09 Pre-extinction

Reliance on others. Acknowledging their own mortality.

10 Extinction

Bio-Software and/or Bio-Hardware cease to be operational.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • The lifecycle of humans is distinguished by the following periods of development:
    • embryonic period,
    • fetal period,
    • neonatal period,
    • period of infancy,
    • toddler period,
    • childhood,
    • puberty,
    • maturity period,
    • middle age,
    • old age

 

Remarks:

  • In The Physics of Life, the most important criterion for classification is the reference to social resergy. Each of us is always a consumer of individual resergy.
  • Depending on the length of life and the environmental conditions, it may be that a person skips period II or will not live to the third period.

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Lifespan of an object - LOAO 
 

Definiens:

The period of time between when an object begins to fulfill the criteria of objectivity to the point where it ceases to do this.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Time elapsed since the creation (initiation) of the object until it transforms so much that it is no longer an object (termination).

  • The measure of permanence of an object.




* * *



Living object 
 

Definiens:

is a flow system (object) of a set of synthesizing replicators interacting with each other belonging to a chain of information succession. The current form of living objects is formed by the process of biological evolution, which is spontaneously initiated in any space where there is a Duality of Nature.

There are several organizational levels of living objects.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • John von Neumann: a machine containing sufficient information is able to build efficient copies of itself from the elements available in its environment

    In the language of The Physics of Life, it would sound a bit different: the object spontaneously building efficient copies of itself from the elements available in its environment, on the basis of the information contained therein.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Magis 
 

Definiens:

The attitude of full commitment and passion in relation to what you are doing:

  • giving more than expected,
  • searching for new and better questions and solutions,
  • strong attention to important details,
  • striving for self-actualization
  • elimination of negative traits,
  • making a product which will pass the examination of time
  • doing better than expected by those around you,
  • discovering the general patterns and accumulation of knowledge for the future,
  • gaining experience so as to be more efficient in future situations,
  • sharing knowledge with others,
  • sharing feedback with others,
  • anticipating positive / negative effects of their actions

 


 

Remarks:

  • A concept coined by Ignatius of Loyola the principle founder of the Society of Jesus.

  • Magis is a Latin word that means "more" or "better".

  • A term coined by St. Ignatius Loyola. [...] St. Ignatius does not allow satisfaction of mediocrity or stagnation at any level. The idea is to make "more" and "better" to closer to God.
    [based upon Wikipedia, Pol., 2015-04-17]




* * *



Mathematical game theory 
 

Definiens:

The branch of mathematics dealing with the study of behaviour in case of a conflict of interest. It comes from the study of gambling and hence the name. This theory is applied in the practice of sportsmanship, war, economics, biology (especially in sociobiology), sociology, computer science (artificial intelligence) and politics. The use of game theory in biology by John Maynard Smith has resulted in the emergence of evolutionary game theory and memetic.




* * *



Matrix 
 

Definiens:

A false picture of reality created in our brains by the phenomena resulting from barriers to objective observation and barrier in processing of information.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • Set of generated or incorrectly interpreted information which "pretend" to be reality.

 

Remarks:

  • The elements of a matrix are:
  • The elements of matrix can be divided into external (generated by other living objects) and internal sources (such as filters embedded in our mind which distort information coming to our receptors).

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Mechanism of life 
 

Definiens:

The mechanism involved in the rise and the subsequent development of life. The foundations of this mechanism are the three principles of the Physics of Life.




* * *



Meme 
 

Definiens:

Any form of information (pattern information) for used for creating non-genetical designs which affect the process of biological evolution of living objects. These memes form memetic designs.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • A unit of culture analogous to a gene.

 

Remarks:

  • from the ancient Greek word mimeme – "imitated thing"

  • Examples of memes:

    • words
    • pictures
    • classifications
    • ideas

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Memetic design 
 

Definiens:

Designs composed of memes, from which modifiable properties of living objects are formed, notebly their structure and behaviour.

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Remarks:

  • Some examples of memetic designs:
    • written words (books, encyclopedias, ...) together with a method so it can be read and repeated
    • behavioural patterns - institutionalised racism, for example
    • fairytales and myths passed orally from generation to generation
    • movies and theatre
    • scientific knowledge and educational systems
    • educational methodology (i.e. rites of passage)
    • knowledge and experiences of ancestors passed down from generation to generation
    • ideology
    • imprinting
    • a cognitive training routine with physical effects, i.e. body building.
    • ...
  • Memetic designs compete for carriers of memetic information so they can spread to a wider environment and/or be more influential. These carriers may be books, films and human brains. The English language is a meme and overwhelmed other languages. Sudovian language is an extinct language because nobody knows it and nobody speaks it. Latin is a dead language as there are no native speakers whereas Sanskrit is considered to be endangered because only approx. 3,000 people speak it as a mother tongue.

  • The human mind likes a strange idea as little as the body likes a strange protein and resists it with a similar energy.
    [...]
    The mental resistance to new ideas is partly due to the fact that they have to displace established ideas. New facts are not usually accepted unless they can be correlated with the existing body of knowledge; it is often not sufficient that they can be demonstrated on independent evidence. Therefore premature discoveries are usually neglected and lost. An unreasoning, instinctive mental resistance to novelty is the real basis of excessive scepticism and conservatism.

    Persecution of great discoverers was due partly to mental resistance to new ideas and partly to the disturbance caused to entrenched authority and vested interests, intellectual and material. Sometimes lack of diplomacy on the part of the discoverer has aggravated matters. Opposition must have killed at birth many discoveries.

    “The Art of Scientific Investigation” W. I. B. Beveridge (1908-2006)

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Methods of the elimination of distortion


of observation
 
 

Definiens:

Methods which can be used to validate the streams of information that come to you.

 

List of MEDO - methods of the elimination of distortion of observation:

  1. The method by defining
    Before we can use concepts such as "justice," "fairness" and "wisdom", we have to define their meaning. Try to write down a detailed definition of the concept you are using. The best result will if you manage to create such a definition, which will be accepted by all your peers. It is not as simple as it first seems.
    Use this method to create a precise definition of evolution or inflation.


  2. The meticulous mathematical method
    It is based on a careful record of data, finding out the relationship between them and discovering one, unique and mathematically logical explanation.
    Try to discover the rate of inflation by recording the prices of a variety of necessary products on a given day each month over a multitude of years.


  3. The method of emotional distance and adjectivelessness
    Rejection of emotions and not using adjectives to describe an event makes it that the observation is closer to reality because the description does not enforce a particular interpretation.

  4. The method of parameter changes
    This simple method is to change the pieces of a given information to the analogous ones. For example, consider how the meaning of a message would change if the value of 10 would be replaced by 1000, or the word "we" by "they" or "Palestinian" by "Israeli". This method also includes a mental experiment involving personal reflection, which answers the question How will I behave if I were in your position?
    When you argue with your beloved try put yourself in their shoes, change you to I.


  5. The method of verifying the source
    Always check the credibility of the source from which the information originates. Try to find at least three contrasting sources for the same event.
    An example is the case involving Gerad Depardieu leaving France for Russia because he wanted to avoid to pay increased taxes. In France, he is a traitor, in the UK - uninvolved observer - his private problems are emphasised and in Russia he is a tool for propaganda.


  6. The uninvolvement of the observer
    It is based on the analysis of whether an observer, from which the information came, can benefit from altering it.
    Some experts employed by some companies (e.g. the state) can manipulate information to make it seem that the company (the state) is going well.


  7. Criterion of timelessness
    "The real truth" stands the test of time. "The today's truth" usually turns out to be a false message altered for the benefit of someone.

  8. The method of eliminating self-bias
    We should be aware of this issue and we must always remember that we are not objective observers. In a very important way we distort information that reaches us. The reason for this is embedded in our evolutionary mechanism of ahamkara.

 


 

Associated concepts:

Milgram's experiment 
 

Definiens:

Detailed description of Milgram's experiment on obedience.

One of the most important sociological experiments in The Physics of Life, showing that:

  1. Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being.
  2. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up.
  3. People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and / or legally based. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace.

 


 

Links:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Model 
 

Definiens:

A simplified representation of an object (or part of reality), which eliminates those characteristics, relationships or other items which, at least theoretically, are of little importance. Analysis of a model allows you to:

  1. explain the causes of phenomena or the behaviour of an object - so-called cognitive model.

  2. exact or approximate prediction of the future course of events or the future behavior of an object - so-called predictive model.

The quality of a model is measured by how precise an explanation or prediction it gives.




* * *



Model of governance  
 

Definiens:

The governance model precisely shows all the characteristics of a government. Such as:

  • Increasing the use of direct coercion - an increase in all kinds of security services.
  • Increasing the tax burden.
  • Creating privileged groups and all kinds of privileges for them.
  • Process aristocraticization of the people in power.
  • Expansion of the governance by creating offices - jobs for people who benefit from being a subordinate to authority, and in return, support the government.
  • The use of different kinds of tactics in power.
  • The process of bringing memebers of society, to a lesser or greater extent, into slavery, members of society who are not in the structures of power - Many Americans are convinced - as Jefferson wrote in the letter to Congress for delegates from Virginia - the series of persecution by the UK "lasting continuously despite change of ministers, too plainly prove a conscious and systematic plan to bring us to a state of slavery."

 


 

Remarks:

  • They govern until the economy collapses, then they are looking for an external enemy - Ernest Hemingway.

  • Wake up. By inflation and taxation of your meager income, you finance the "elites" Byzantine style of life. This "elite" contains people such as: their faithful Praetorians and relatives, the etatist's mafia, pseudomanagers living on giant earnings, their loyal law enforcers, the corrupt judiciary, the legions of their esteemed servants and the media - they are all on a financial leash. What was possible was sold or stolen. Now they finance their prosperity with foreign loans that will be paid by patients and pensioners for decades. - Blogger ~Cartofel 27.09.2013

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature:




* * *



Motivant function 
 

Definiens:

A function, which at a given moment and in given circumstances, clearly defines how the living object will behave. Depending on: external conditions, evolutionary history, the history of the object itself and random influencing factors.




* * *



Natural tendency 
 

Definiens:

is a characteristic behaviour of the system, which tends to be in one of its possible attractors

 


 

Other definientia:

  • Goal-directedness - Michael Rothschild "Bionomics" page. 71

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Natural Pressure for Social Exploitation 
 

Definiens:

Natural mechanism functioning in social groups which favours unproductivity.

Imagine a group of ten people who have decided to live in the ideal community. They want to work and devote themselves to the community, sharing their production equally. Each of them produces goods worth 100 oro every month, and thus the community can share in 1000 oro. Common goods are shared equally, in accordance with established rules, and everyone gets all kinds of goods with a value of 100 oro. It is easy to note that the expenses and revenues are balanced - the balance is zero (I produced and gave a hundred, I got goods worth a hundred).

Let's apply sensitivity analysis and introduce a disturbance to this model of a perfect community. Imagine that one perso nhas not worked at all. The reason, as usual, in the sensitivity analysis, is not important - it could be a disease or laziness, it does not matter. This time, the community has developed 900 oro, and, after the split, each got 90, including the one that did nothing. His balance is 90 oro (developed 0, gained 90). The balance remaining is -10 oro (developed 100, gained 90) - the value of goods received by each of them is down by 10 oro. Note that the profit of non-working is very large in relation to the loss of the others, and moreover, the profit for non-working will be larger if the community is larger.

Let us now examine the effect of the opposite disturbance, and assume that one of the members is devoted to enriching the community. Therefore, the member has decided to work hard, working day and night, and managed to produce twice as much as the others - generating 200 oro. This time, the community has 1100 oro to share, so everyone gets 110 oro. So now the balance for this hard worker is -90, while the balance for the others is +10.

Now compare the two disturbances - the balance in the first case was for the member to put in zero and to receive 90 oros. It means that by doing nothing, the person received as much as if they had worked normally. However, the balance of the second, hard-working person, who put in 200 and received 110 oros, shows a deficit of 90 oros. As we can see, the benefits of not working outweigh those accrued by working twice as hard. It is a natural mechanism which is implanted in societies. On the other hand, as we remember, each of us optimizes the balance of profit and loss, or simply speaking, we prefer doing less for more.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Aristotle: the larger the number of owners has the property, the less the others take care of it

  • Garret Hardin: the history of great fortunes shows that the tactics of those who built them was clandestine, socializing the costs and privatizing the benefits

  • Frederic Bastiat: If a move will result in the loss of one franc for each of the thousands of people and gain a thousand francs by one person, the latter consumes a lot of energy, while the former would rather put up little resistance, it is therefore likely that the person who makes the effort gaining one thousand francs will gain them successfully.




* * *



Naturally false messages 
 

Definiens:

The phenomenon of the natural formation of messages which affect the processes of observation. Naturally fake messages are one of the elements of the barriers to objective observation.

 


 

Examples:

  • Human society naturally generates messages that miraculously escape death (there are usually those who are the only survivors of a crash), but does not generate messages in the same way about a trifling death (of course there are messages that one was killed by such a trifle but these messages are weaker in reception because they do not originates from the source, as opposed to cases of miraculous survival).

  • In photographs from Western Europe from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, we often see kids working hard in factories. For the observer, the message is very clear: the exploitation of children. But if they had not got jobs, they would probably starve to death. There is no chance to take a picture of starving children, because they did not die in the same place and time. Working children worked in shifts of a dozen or more hours in groups - the photographs we see today. However, the mortality statistics before and during the Industrial Revolution would explain whether these children were slaves or survivors. But these statistics in opposition to the photographs of hard-working children are non-existant.

  • Commercial media, which are cashing-in on advertising are rather reluctant to inform people about the negative sides of taking credit. Their finances are supported by the banks they advertise, so they do not want to bite the hand that feeds them.

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Nature of an Honest Man 
 

Definiens:

The main factor of human motivation. Man consciously and subconsciously is doing everything possible to maximize the balance of his benefits and losses to realize his life purpose.

 


 

Remarks:

  • It is not only human nature, but every living object.

  • Of course, a lot of people (authorities) do not want to agree with this. Those who are saying that this is not true, simply apply the von Neumann tactics and/or von Sociall tactics in order to better maximize their own balance of benefits and losses.

  • Polish proverb: You can only rake to yourself.

  • According to Boy Zelenski, the main motive of Maxims by François de La Rochefocauld was - Selfishness, narcissism, fear or desire for benefits, he found these components whenever he undressed any human action. Only this remains when you take away appearances.

  • If theft (robbery, plunder) is in our interest, we agree to theft (robbery, plunder).

  • It is typical of people to think themselves more honest and moral than others.

  • It is amazing how people are sitting in the grip of profit. For them to do something more than that, it's a huge barrier. They usually explain that they are incompetent, they lack the discipline, that it would be ridiculous and that it would be hopeless. And hence, the people in power can do what they want with society. [Tomasz Maciejewski]

  • François de La Rochefoucauld (1613-1680) broke the optimistic view of the nature of humanity, pointing to the hypocrisy, selfishness, weakness and vanity of all people. Honesty and kindness is a game of appearances...

  • Conflict erupts around power, money and prestige. [possibly said by Max Weber or Peter Blau]

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Nature of Things 
 

Definiens:

What happens, happens.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Although we do not know why, there is a logic/reason in it




* * *



Non-linearity 
 

Definiens:

This phenomenon is when a small factor causes large changes in the system. The definition is not precise because the concept of "small" and "large" are not well defined in mathematics.

 


 

Remarks:

  • An example, illustrating problems with linearity and non-linearity , is driving a car.
    Linearity phenomenon: the faster (within reasonable speed) you drive, the sooner you get to your destination.
    Non-linearity phenomenon: missing you exit junction on the motorway, a lapse of only a few seconds, causes a significant delay.

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Object 
 

Definiens:

a material or abstract separate element, having:

  • identity,

  • a set of properties which, at a given time, have a current state. Changes in this state, over time, we call behaviour or a mathematical process.

  • interaction interface - virtually any value or behaviour of a given property can affect the state(s) and/or behaviour(s) of another object(s), so, interaction interface can be identified as the set of properties of this object.

 

Full definition of object.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Optimization 
 

Definiens:

The process of finding the best solution from the point of view of a particular quality criterion.




* * *



Organizational levels of living objects 
 

Definiens: If we agree that a living object is a set of interacting, replicating elements, then we can distinguish several organizational levels of living objects, depending on the elements of which it is composed.

  • Level 0 – RPD particles, such as liposomes, RNA and DNA.
    The RPD phenomenon is a sequence of the repeated disassembling and reconstruction of objects. Objects are rebuilt because their components strive to form groups. They fall apart as a result of exceeding a given critical value of cohesion in the expanding object;
  • Level 1 – synthesizing replicators, which are particles or groups of particles which not only rebuild themselves after division, but also create side products – on the basis of a natural design, which they themselves are;
  • Level 2 – prokaryotic cells, bacteria and mitochondria;
  • Level 3 – eukaryotic cells;
  • Level 4 – multicellular WSS-type objects (object subjected to selection as a whole), such as human beings or ants;
  • Level 5 – social WSS-type objects, such as ant colonies.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Insect communities are not a single entity, and this may raise doubts that the community can be considered as a living object. This observation is right, but from the perspective of systems theory, a community of insects can be considered as an entity, because "entity" does not depend on how its elements are linked, but how they are interacting (coupling occurs between them)!

  • Note: The n-level objects are not exclusively made from the elements of n-1 level (suggested name: hierarchical cascade), but some elements can be from lower levels, for example n-2 and n-3 (suggested name: hierarchical nested cascade)




* * *



Orthogonal factors 
 

Definiens:

Numerous factors influencing the system at the same time, however, belonging to different qualitative dimensions.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The boiling point of water depends on both the temperature and the ambient pressure. So, the temperature and the pressure are the orthogonal factors for determining the boiling point of water.

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature in Polish:




* * *



Orthogonal pairings: Reasons-Emotions 
 

Definiens:

People act on the basis of decisions taken as a result of thinking (understanding) or under the influence of emotions. Emotional reactions are generally similar to rational decision making, yet can have a different impact on the lives of individuals and social groups.

 


 

Remarks:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Paradox of industrialisation 
 

Definiens:

A phenomenon, which leaves a completely unreal image of itself in the minds of successive generations of humans. This is due to the fact that certain witnesses die and do not communicate their testimony to be passed on.

There is a lot of negative things written about child labour in eighteenth century England during the Industrial Revolution (from 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840). This period is widely considered as to be intrinsically linked with the inhuman exploitation of children. Statistics drawn from 10 parishes around London show that, at the turn of the eighteenth century, child mortality was approximately 92%! From these, it shows that from 2073 children born in one year, only 166 reached the age of five. This was after the Great Plague of London, which lasted from 1350 to 1670.

From 1760, children begun to be employed in industry. The thesis is this: although working conditions were indeed very bad, and this does not need to be discussed, it turned out that child mortality decreased. So the paradox is that the child's welfare was better protected in the "inhuman" factories than at "home". "Welfare" in this case should be considered strictly and unambiguously, as the fulfillement of their life purpose. Population statistics show that, despite this exploitation the population grew.

The paradox lies in the following:

  1. although living objects (people) operated in inhuman conditions, these conditions helped save many of those living objects.

  2. there are many survivors who can witness the inhuman conditions, but there are few or none who can witness that they died because they have no opportunity to work in these inhuman conditions.

 


 

Remarks:

 

Links:




* * *



The Physics of Life 
 

Definiens:

The science that studies the nature and characteristics of living objects (objects that absorb resources and replicate themselves) and the systems they create.

The main elements making up the paradigm of The Physics of Life are:

  1. Duality of Nature, alternatively named as the law of concentration, which is the first principle of The Physics of Life.

  2. RPD phenomena which is the manifestation of the law of concentration in terrestrial conditions.

  3. Self-excited process of biological evolution generated by the RPD phenomenon. The basis of biological evolution is gerpedelution. The process of biological evolution is the second principle of The Physics of Life.

  4. The first characteristic of biological evolution, which is the aggregation of cooperation and the escalation of conflict in the process of acquiring resources by RPD-type objects (which is the fourth principle of The Physics of Life). This process leads to the gradual transformation of RPD-type objects into synthesizing replicators, which are living objects of the first organizational level.

  5. The second characteristic of biological evolution, which is the emergence, due to replication errors, of better structural and behavioural tactics in subsequent generations of resource absorbing and self-replicating objects. This characteristic has led to the perfection in the tactics of absorbing resources. These tactics can be generalised as pursuance. Pursuance is the third principle of The Physics of Life.

  6. The absorption of resources creates a conflict of interests between all types of living objects and leads to the conclusion that life is a game (in the terms of the mathematical game theory) for resources.

  7. Von Neumann tactic and related tactics. John von Neumann - founder of the mathematical game theory, explored issues relating to conflict of interest - has proved that the best tactic is to deceive an opponent in such a way that the he is convinced that a bluff has not been used. This type of tactic, in The Physics of Life, is called von Neumann's tactic.
    The conclusion is that violence and lies are common (not extraordinary) in our environment. The Physics of Life recognises a variety of different violences: physical, mental, economic, subjugation... and a variety of different lies as, for example, Von Neumann tactic.

  8. The issue of perfecting von Neumann's tactic and other kinds of lies by humans, who, as the supreme living objects (of the fourth organizational level), drive von Neumann's tactic and other lies to the highest level.

  9. The issue of the consequences of using von Neumann tactic by humans. One such consequence is that we consider a lie to be reality.

Key terms:

  • Object - replacing and expanding the philosophical concept of being. Related concepts, such as object's properties and their state, criteria of objectivity and answering the question whether the object remains as the object and causative factors, which include initiators, constructors, destructors, and terminators of an object.

  • resergy the required resources essential for a living object to reach its life purpose with the concept of resergy conversion.

  • feedback with particular emphasis on the 6 basic types of feedback, proposed by Marian Mazur.

  • system with particular emphasis on the 6 basic types of natural tendency of a system.

  • living object - an object which absorbs resources until its division (or replication), and the tactics used to absorb resources - two basic types: tactics of structure and tactics of behaviour.

  • three basic types of resergy: matter, energy and information.

  • three basic resergetic elements: source (producer), annihilator (consumer) and converter (transforming element).

  • Pursuance.

Methods:

Objective:

To provide better models explaining and predicting phenomena and processes associated with life.

 


 

Remarks:




* * *



Popsor 
 

Definiens:




* * *



Population analysis 
 

Definiens:

All activities aimed at building an accurate model of a population. The main methods of population analysis are searching for emergent and concident properties.

 


 

Remarks:

  • In 2011, the Polish Minister of Health stated that "elderly patients go to the doctor to kill the boredom," which of course caused a media storm. Both this statement and the storm is an example of non-thinking in terms of population analysis. Of course there is a section of elderly people who go to the (public & free) doctor for a conversation which the media tried to deny, but it certainly does not apply to everyone.
    Thinking in terms of population analysis, we should be aware of the scale of the problem that we need to highlight. If two people in a million go to the doctor for a conversation, this is an irrelevant detail. However, if it concerns, for example, 15% of the population, it can be quite an important social issue.



  • * * *



Population calculus 
 

Definiens:

A mathematical tool that allows to examine living objects as members of the population, understood as a set of objects with at least one of the same property. Population calculus studies a distribution of states of this property within the population and the variation of this distribution over time. It also takes into account the reproduction of living objects.

The base object of the population calculus is popsor and the typical operations are: "", traf popsora, addition of popsors, smuga popsora, selective transformation opf popsor, breeding of popsor, speciation of popsor, moovens of popsor.

 

Full description of Population calculus.




* * *



Populationally typical emotional reactions 
 

Definiens:

Genetically stored tactics of behaviour typical of the majority of individuals within a given population. These tactics are emergent due to biological evolution. They emerged and are perpetually improved upon. They consist of the automatic launch, by a living object, of a set of specific reactions in response to a set of specific causal factors. Because they are launched unconsciously, for the bystanders they may seem to be incomprehensible or irrational.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Prevoluant 
 

Definiens:

Every element in an evolutionary sequence which is before a given element.

 


 

Remarks:

  • One of the strong arguments against the theory of evolution is the ridiculous statement that the monkey is the ancestor of man. Indeed, it carries a negativity. We subconsciously associate the word "ancestor" with a wise grandfather or possibly a famous antecedent from the Middle Ages, yet a monkey is usually considered as stupid or, at least, ridiculous. Many people do not even try to think about the essence of the evolutionary process as they do not want to be perceived as following in the footsteps of an ancestor thought of as stupid, ignorant or comical. However, when one says "monkey is a prevoluant of humans", it sounds better, more precise and hurts nobody's pride.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Principles of The Physics of Life 
 

Definiens:

  1. First Principle of The Physics of Life. 

    Matter has a tendency to concentrate, the final effect of which is a loss of concentration (eg. explosion or division). The RPD phenomenon is an effect of this principle in terrestrial conditions.

    See Duality of Nature and Law of concentration

     

  2. Second Principle of The Physics of Life. 

    Generated by the RPD phenomenon, the process of biological evolution has a reverse impact on the objects which generated it. It means that biological evolution shapes subsequent generations of interacting living objects and they, in reverse, change the features of biological evolution.
    Biological evolution and objects submitted to it compose an autodynamic system.

    Biological evolution has these essential features:

    1. The first essential feature of biological evolution:
      as long as the selection function is strong enough, the subsequent generations of living objects submitted to it will have an increasingly more perfect form (in the sense of achieving its life purpose). In reverse, when the selection function is not strong enough, the form of the subsequent generations will revert to a less perfect state, as claimed by Charles Darwin. [See the description of S-nastu hypothesis]

       

    2. The second essential feature of biological evolution:
      in the case of a strong selection function, the interactions in subsequent generations of living objects have two natural tendencies:

      1. escalation of conflict, which produce living objects better suited to deal with given conflicting situations or
      2. aggregation of cooperation, which gather living objects into social groups, for example flocks, swarms, wolfpacks, shoals etc.

       

    3. The third essential feature of biological evolution:
      in the case of a strong selection function, and when aggregation of cooperation occurs, it gradually leads to members of the social groups specialising in its functions. This is due to the law of comparative advantage.

       

  3. Third Principle of The Physics of Life. 

    The interaction between living objects is pursuance. Biological evolution leads to the emergence of, constantly changing in subsequent generations, tactics of structure and tactics of behaviour aimed at acquiring resources. This leads to the situation where the acquisition of resources amongst living objects is carried out pursuantly.

    Pursuance is the basis of interactions between living objects in their most general form.

     




* * *



Prisoner's dilemma 
 

Definiens:

A key example in mathematical game theory to illustrate the orthogonality of the interests within a group.

 

Fig. Ilustration of Prisoner's Dilemma

 

John and Eve - two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. Each prisoner is in solitary confinement with no means of speaking to or exchanging messages with the other. The police admit they don't have enough evidence to convict the pair on the principal charge. They plan to sentence both to two years in prison on a lesser charge. Simultaneously, the police offer each prisoner a Faustian bargain. Here's how it goes:

  1. if they behave loyally towards each other and will remain silent, they will be sentenced only to two years in prison for some minor crimes
    Balance for the group =-4, Individual balance John=-2, Eve=-2;

  2. if they do not behave loyally towards each other and both will testify, they will be sentenced to five years in prison for this crime
    Balance for the group=-10, Individual balance John=-5, Eve=-5;

  3. if one person will testify and the other remains silent, the former will be released and the latter will be sentenced to ten years in prison
    Balance for the group=-10, Individual balance John=0, Eve=-10; (or vice versa)

After the two were arrested, they were placed in isolation. Neither of them will know what the other will do: testify or not. The dilemma lies in the fact that I, as a player, don't know what to do? The best situation for me occurs when I blame the other person and they say nothing. But I'm not stupid and I know that they know that too. What to do? Not to testify is risky because if they will charge me I will go to prison for 10 years. It is safe to charge him, because there is a chance, albeit small, that they will not charge me and I will be allowed to go free. The dilemma deepens when inmates are in the same cell and can communicate. Of course, both promise not to accuse each other, but what sort of stress would they undergo during the trial! "Cheat or not to cheat?" - that is the question.

The prisoner's dilemma is a good example that:

  • the result does not depend on a single player's action, but the actions of both of them,

  • in order to the group reachies the maximum benefit, all of its members must follow what they agreed,

  • the person who benefits the most is the one who breaks the agreement whilst the other(s) follow what they agreed,

  • information (in the form of a specific decision) influences the material world (the actual sentence).

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Probabilistic paradox of occurrence 
 

Definiens:

The fact that the probability of an occurrence of something is extremely low (or high) does not mean that it will not happen (or will happen). This leads to two mundane conclusions:

  • No matter how (amazingly, shockingly) small the probability of an occurrence is, it does not mean that it will not happen.
  • No matter how (amazingly, shockingly) high the probability of an occurrence is, it does not mean that it will happen.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Probability distribution 
 

Definiens:

In probability and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that, stated in simple terms, can be thought of as providing the probability of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment. For instance, if the random variable X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ('the experiment'), then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 for X=Heads, and 0.5 for X=Tails.

In more technical terms, the probability distribution is a description of a random phenomenon in terms of the probabilities of events. Examples of random phenomena can include the results of an experiment or survey. A probability distribution is defined in terms of an underlying sample space, which is the set of all possible outcomes of the random phenomenon being observed. The sample space may be the set of real numbers or a higher-dimensional vector space, or it may be a list of non-numerical values; for example, the sample space of a coin flip would be { Heads , Tails }.

Probability distributions are generally divided into two classes. A discrete probability distribution (applicable to the scenario where the set of possible outcomes is discrete, such as a coin toss or a roll of dice) can be encoded by a discrete list of the probabilities of the outcomes, known as a probability mass function. On the other hand, a continuous probability distribution (applicable to the scenarios where the set of possible outcomes can take on values in a continuous range (e.g., real numbers), such as the temperature on a given day) is typically described by probability density functions (with the probability of any individual outcome actually being 0). The normal distribution represents a commonly encountered continuous probability distribution. More complex experiments, such as those involving stochastic processes defined in continuous time, may demand the use of more general probability measures.

[Wikipedia, Eng, 2016.12.18]




* * *



Process 
 

Definiens:

  1. Process is a sequence of events / actions resulting in a particular state / purpose.

  2. A set of activities that produce a specific result, service or product.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • System performing a specific sequence of changes.




* * *



Process (mat.) 
 

Definiens:

Process (in a mathematical sense) is a sequence of consecutive states.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Process, in regard to changes to a given property of a system, is usually named behaviour




* * *



Pursuance 
 

Definiens:

The set of phenomena associated with the process of achieving a goal. From the viewpoint of mathematical game theory this is a branch of a decision tree. The branch which, up to this point, was taken and will continue to be undertaken from now on.

 

Full definition of pursuance.

 


 

Remarks:




* * *



Reductionist thinking 

Definiens:

Reductionist thinking is to take a complex structure and reduce it to its simplest form, taking into consideration its most important and/or influential components.

In a very general form, it can be said that reductionist thinking is to find a clear rule that fully explains the phenomenon and allows for prediction.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Using this method, Isaac Newton (1643-1727) discovered and presented in simple mathematical formulas the two fundamental laws: law of motion in the form of three principles of dynamics and the law of universal gravitation. Just a few equations are enough to fully understand the motion of planets. Due to this, scientists cemented the belief that the world can be seen as a mechanism governed by simple rules, and these, sooner or later, will be discovered and described in simple equations. The laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, later formulated by physicists, are other examples of successful conceptual reductionist thinking.

    The physicists were followed by others, including naturalists, philosophers, economists and sociologists. All of them focused on the rejection of what, they thought, was negligible in the studied phenomenon, and on finding a fundamental, simple cause-and-effect relationship, preferably in the form of a concise mathematical formula. In the wake of the scientists were the engineers, who applied these newly discovered laws with great success. Moreover, it occurred that, in practice, this reductionist-isolationist approach became "the only correct" one [9788374840453, p.10, paraphrased by - JF].

    This "only correctness" was proven by the most famous formula in the world: Enstein's (1879-1955) E=mc2. The fact that reductionist thinking was successfully proven so many times by scientists and engineers, it caused that the vast majority of people intuitively perceive it as coherent and logical. Moreover, it is relatively easy in teaching and therefore educational systems around the world use and teach it from the earliest ages. Thus it evolved into the dominant paradigm of knowledge. However, as science has advanced, it turns out that, while it explains many issues well, it unfortunately does not allow for a full understanding of the mechanisms of nature.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Resergy 
 

Definiens:

Quantitive measure of a living objects survival (achieving its life purpose) potential.

Resergy consists of: matter, energy and information. Therefore, it is not additive nor able to be conserved. It depends on time, environmental conditions and, moreover, objects and their interactions: deer droppings are not included in the resergy of man, but it is the main source for the dung beetle (Geotrupes stercorarius).

Resergy is classified according to the organizational level of the living object, and therefore is distinguishable between the individual resergy required for the survival of an individual and the social resergy necessary for the continuation of the community.

 


 

Other definientia:

 

Remarks:

  • The concept of resergy (resources needed) should not be confused with the concept of "desired resources".

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Resource 
 

Definiens:

Everything that can be used by an object.




* * *



Revolution's cycle 
 

Definiens:

One of the real progressions of Tytler's cycle. Characteristic cycle of the progression of revolution. It consists of the following stages:

  1. Decay: Development of numerous groups, better equipped with greater privileges, around the centre of power. These privileges come down to the fact that these people consume more while producing less and/or less useful goods - resergy. This causes a build-up of social inequality and discontentment of those who produce resergy.
  2. Revolution: Revolt triggered by any factor affecting the lowest level of society, coming together to overthrow those in power. Centre of power and the privileged groups supporting it are moved away from power, often through annihilation. The revolution does not comply with man-made laws, but with natural law - if I can kill, I kill. Due to this production and free trade dies and theft, looting and robberies increase. The revolt centres around one of three doctrines: communist (if the centre of power is supported by religious structures), religious (if the religious structures were in opposition to the centre of power) and economical recovery (usually this type of rebellion is created by an intelligent individual).
  3. Fight for power: Lawless period - the period of an animalistic struggle for power which results in the formation of groups fighting each other, until finally, one of them (usually the most radical) gets total power (usually by the annihilation of the others).
  4. Return to decay: Return to the process of the formation of privileged groups around the centre of power.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



RPD 
 

Definiens:

The phenomenon of the destruction and reconstruction of objects. This reconstruction is due to the natural tendency of particles to group, whilst the destruction is the result of reaching a certain, critical point of the cohesiveness of the (re)constructing object.

Examples of RPD-type particles are:

  • Liposomes (spherical membrane structure) constructed from free phospholipids
  • DNA (linear biopolymer) built from deoxyribonucleotides
  • RNA built from ribonucleotides

 


 

Remarks:

  • The abbreviation "RPD" was created by combining the first letters of the Latin phrase reconstructo post dividere, which means "rebuilding after the division".

  • Many philosophers look for a basic factor which can explain our chaotic world. It seems that this factor is the RPD phenomenon, which instigated the process of biological evolution. Ergo, RPD generated biological evolution, which created and still shapes different forms of living objects. Life is, in fact, derived from the phenomenon of RPD.

  • Accurate reconstruction of RNA is possible, but in this process, there are a lot more errors than during the reconstruction of DNA.

  • It is worth noting that the RPD-type particles behave as if they implement the strategy: "absorb resources until division". Of course, it is not a strategy "invented" by them, but simply the physics of the phenomenon.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Rules of life 
 

Definiens: Four rules which form the basis of The Physics of Life. They describe the relationships between chemical particles and living objects which are created from them.

  1. The rule of the formation of life

  2. The rule of dependence

  3. The rule of the optimization of drawing from resources

  4. The rule of balancing of resources




* * *



S-nastu dilemma 
 

Definiens:

A key dilemma for The Physics of Life which refers to species: either species is submitted to a strong natural selection (see s-nastu improvement graph) and survives as a species or the species is submitted to a weak selection function (see s-nastu reversion graph) gradually becoming less adapted to the external conditions.

In the second case, two dangers may occur:

  1. the constant rise of getting the necessary resources (resergy), and, in any given moment, the species may not be able to get them
  2. degeneration of the genetic designs within the population to such an extend that multiplication (sexual) becomes impossible.

 


 

Remarks:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



S-nastu hypothesis 
 

Definiens:

There is a correlation between the percentage of individuals selected from the initial population to reproduce (in other words, the force of the selection function) and the quality of the properties of living objects in the next generation.

 

Full description of s-nastu hypothesis

 


 

 

Remarks:

  • It is just that the strong multiply and grow, and the weak perish. Otherwise, the world would become home to the disabled, which would be an injustice. - Boleslaw Prus "The Doll"
  • Charles Darwin wrote in "The Origin of Species..." about a natural tendency to reversion to a less perfect state.




* * *



Saint Matthew's ratchet 
 

Definiens:

Natural mechanism which functions in social groups that causes that the selection function becomes non-linear.

 


 

Remarks:

  • A description of the phenomenon caused by this mechanism is found in the New Testament, written by St. Matthew: For everyone who has will be given more, and he will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him.

  • This mechanism is best illustrated by the phenomenon of pre-harvest famine: survival of the peasants were dependent on wealth, intelligence, resourcefulness and luck. Those who were better managers had a better harvest in the previous year, and therefore, were better prepared for the pre-harvest period, they had enough supplies to feed themselves and their family. In turn, for those not so well prepared, it was a period of forced fasting, during which they consumed everything edible, including spoiled food or even plants which are not present in a normal diet (e.g. different types of weeds). Badly prepared farmers were unsuccessful and were forced to borrow from the well prepared farmers, compensating in either money or food. After the harvest, they were obliged to pay back the loan which saved their lives. Even assuming that in a given year, all the farmers harvest the same amount, it still ended up that in the following August is that the collections made by the good managers were increased by the repaid loans, and the least resourceful had their supplies depleted. So those that were better prepared were better and better off through the subsequent years whilst the least resourceful ones were gradually worse and worse off after each passing year.

 

Links:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Selection 
 

Definiens:

The transformation of a set of objects by the selection function into a set of selected objects.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Selection is the second stage of gerpedelution

  • In the case of living objects, those selected are the ones who have survived long enough to have offspring. The unselected ones are those which died before having offspring.

 

Quotes from literature:

  • (in Polish or Google English from Polish) associated with "Selection"




* * *



Selection function 
 

Definiens:

The selection function is one which transforms an input set of living objects into a set of selected objects. This function tests whether an object conforms to a given condition - selection criterion - and rejects those that do not meet this condition.

Selection function strength, in relation to living objects depends on:

  • number of objects in the input set - the more there are, the stronger the selection function
  • proportion of the rejected objects compared to the number of successful ones - the fewer objects selected, the stronger the selection function
  • diversity of features of objects within the input set - the more diverse the input set of objects, the stronger the selection function

Selection criterion it is a condition which must be fulfilled in order for the selection function to select the object according to this condition. In the case of living objects, it may be a very simple criterion, such as: "can escape faster than..., further than..." or a very complex one "Kill all the opponents in the tournament".

Competitive selection criterion operates like this:

  • a session of games is played between objects,
  • each game results in gaining or losing points,
  • each object is ranked according to its total score,
  • the selection function selects, in a given moment (ie.: after four rounds), the top n number of objects from this ranking

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Remarks:

  • Competitive selection criterion is extremely strong when n=1, which means that there is only one selected from all the objects.

  • Competitive selection criterion is extremely weak when all the objects are selected, which means that the selection process hasn't occurred.

  • In the case of biological evolution weak competitive selection criterion, according to S-nastu hypothesis, leads to the degeneration of genetic and memetic designs.
    However, we can't say that the extremely strong competitive selection criterion is always the best for biological evolution. The final perfection (ie. wing) can arise as a sequence of temporary basic imperfections (ie. proto-wing which cause inefficiency on land). It can be presumed that the optimum is somewhere close to extremely strong competitive selection criterion, however, it is difficult to specify exactly because the game is non-linear phenomenon.

 

Quotes from literature




* * *



Self-contagious label 
 

Definiens:

The feature of a label (or slogan) which causes that it is quickly adopted by the general population.

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Self-reliant pursuant object 
 

Definiens:

The general model of an object which actively maintains its self-control and uses it for achieving goals in a pursuant manner.


Fig. The general model of (self-reliant) pursuant object

 

The model consists of four basic elements:

  • Sensors
  • Analyzers
  • Acutators
  • Resources

 


 

Remarks:

  • The term "autonomous system" or "autonom" was introduced by Marian Mazur. In his first publications he used the term "independent system". The term "autonomous system" became the basis for the development of the Polish school of social cybernetics.
    [Wikipedia, pol 2015.05.23. More]

  • (Self-reliant) pursuant object is a simplified model of an autonom (autonomous system) proposed by Marian Mazur. An autonom has the ability to control itself and resiliently maintains this ability. To have these two features, it must, according to Mazur, contain, each of the following subsystems: receptors, effectors, correlator, alimentator, battery and homeostat.
    [Wikipedia, pol 2015.05.23. More]




* * *



Self-spreadness 
 

Definiens:

The feature (usuallly the victory factor) of an object, which causes that it multiplies and passes through the selection stage of gerpedelution process, causing the rise of numbers of it's offspring in subsequent generations.

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Sensitivity analysis 
 

Definiens:

This is a study of how a model of any system responds to different kinds of changes:

  • initial conditions,
  • system parameters,
  • structure of the system,
  • external conditions.

In particular, it is important to study the impact of the so-named disturbances - seemingly insignificant changes, rare or even unpredictable.

The most important thing in this analysis is to discover the nature of the reaction of the system. It may be, in fact, linear or nonlinear, may only change the behaviour of the system or even change the system itself.




* * *



Self-excitation 
 

Definiens:

Self-excitation is the provocation (triggering, inspiring, animating, stimulating, arousing) which brings into existance new processes in the system. Self-excited processes are the result of supplies of energy and are initiated by destabilizing disturbances.

 


 

Remarks:

  • In technical science the concept of self-excited vibrations is well-known. This vibration occurs in a dynamic dissipative system which is fed back onto itself. The vibrations are maintained (or powered) by an external source of constant energy.

  • Self-excited vibrations can be destructive to the system, for example, when the frequency is close to the natural frequency of the system (natural frequency is the frequency at which a system naturally vibrates once it has been set into motion).

 

Examples of self-excited processes:

  • swaying trees, ripples of fields of cereals, flapping flags, shaking towers, chimneys and bridges in the wind
  • rocking electric cables
  • vibrations of turbine blades in jet engines
  • swinging pendulum in a clock
  • creation of alternating current in generators
  • hydrological cycle
  • biological evolution

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Sequence 
 

Definiens:

In mathematics, informally speaking, a sequence is an ordered list of objects (or events).




* * *



Short-/long-term benefit dilemma 
 

Definiens:

Classical dilemma in which one has to decide whether to choose between "lower risk, low immediate benefit" or "higher risk, potentially high benefit in the future".




* * *



Small evolution 
 

Definiens:

A classic evolutionary game for The Physics of Life - a model of a society consisting of independent objects, absorbing the available resources.

The game is imposed on a population composed of a number of players (n). For a period of time all the players are randomly matched in pairs and play against each other in a contest called a single-game meeting. Depending on the strategies used, each player gains or loses points. After each single-game meeting, each player adjusts his account, wins and losses, and prepares for the next meeting after the pairs are redrawn. The most important factors of this game are the rules of selection and duplication. Occasionally, sometimes after three single-game meetings, sometimes after a million (nobody knows when), the selection and duplication occurs. When it happens all the players are ranked according to points gained. Then the top 50% of players are selected for the subsequent games. The bottom half is rejected and no longer take part in the game - you can say that they are annihilated. Those who pass the selection are duplicated and gameplay restarts from the beginning. As you might notice, after this operation, the population remains at the same level of output. These cycles repeat ad infinitum.

 

To be exact, let's name:

  1. round - the sequence of single-game meetings which started just after the selection & duplication number N till selection & duplication number N+1;

  2. cycle - a round with the completed selection & duplication.

 

Full description of the game "Small evolution"

 


 

Remarks:

  • The analysis of this model with the payoff matrix "As in life," leads to the conclusion that communities fall into the so-called Tytler cycle




* * *



Small group evolution 
 

Definiens:

A classic evolutionary game for The Physics of Life - a model of a society consisting of objects cooperating to form independent systems able to absorb the available resources.

The game is played exactly like the small evolution, but every single player is considered as a team of n players closely cooperating with each other, and selection involves the whole team.

Each player in this game is a team, consisting of individual elements working together to benefit the whole. Such a team is called the g(roup)-player and in small group evolution is considered to be a Wholly Selected System - WSS. When duplication occurs, the whole team is replicated.

 


 

Remarks:

  • An analysis of this game shows that each element of the team is compelled into perfect cooperation.




* * *



Social Cycle 
 

Definiens:

A natural cycle characterized by the interaction between the elements that constitute social systems PSS-type. It consists of the following stages:

Stage I of Social cycle Scarcity of resources forcing a coercion of cooperation or a coercion to eliminate members of the population and take the resources belonging to them.
(Remark: sooner or later, elimination brings the society back to scarcity of resources. Cooperation leads to stage II of Tytler's cycle.)
Stage II of Social cycle Undertaking cooperation or going to stage IV of Tytler's cycle.
Stage III of Social cycle Cooperation resulting in an excess of resources.
Stage IV of Social cycle Striving to improve the balance of benefits and losses at the expense of others. (In the case of a shortage of resources, this is done mainly by robbery, in the case of an excess of resources, mainly by theft and plunder)
Stage V of Social cycle Return to stage I.

 

 

 


 

Remarks:

  • Even Machiavelli (1469-1527) noted that the public makes decisions rationally only in moments of extreme danger, in times of normallity it selects those that interfere the least and are able to please the population.

  • A clear description of one of the many representations of this cycle, written by Marek Jan Chodakiewicz:
    Marxism is the quest for absolute control over both: the totalitarian party in power (or in pursuit of power) and the society that has been already conquered (or in the process of being controlled). After the victory over the oppressed society, the party exploits them for the benefit of the parasitic elite. However, the foundation of Marxism-Leninism is strongly opposed to natural order, so real socialism/communism, put into practice, slowly begins to kill the social organism on which it feeds. Periodically, therefore, it ceases to suck out the juice, this is a period of so-called "liberalization", which is temporary and slows the process leading to real communism. Then people try to return to normal (e.g. economic, trying to restore the principles of free market). This is the time needed to strengthen the social organism to be able to go to the next stage - continuing the march to socialism.[NCZ 1048, str. XXXV]

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Social group 
 

Definiens:

A social group is a set of humans (at least two), working together to meet their own needs. The group is characterized by a permanent structure and has its own mechanisms of interaction, both internal and external.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Any group of people perceiving themselves as different from others can be called a social group. Examples are religious sects, political groups or unions. The main feature of the social group is double standards - different rules apply to intra-group behaviour and the others outside of it. - American ecologist Garrett James Hardin

  • Gustave Le Bon, author of "The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind" classified the social groups as follows::

    1. Heterogenic crowds (composed of people dissimilar to each other)
      1. Anonymous (e.g. street crowd, crowd of onlookers)
      2. Non-anonymous (parliament, a jury)
    2. Homogenic crowds (composed of people more or less similar to each other)
      1. Sect (religious, political)
      2. Caste (military, priests, skilled workers, etc.)
      3. Layer (the bourgeoisie, peasants, etc.)

  • 4 conditions must be met to name a set of humans as a social group:
    1. The group must be a real set of humans.
    2. The goal of existence should be stated.
    3. The reason for cooperation between the members should be stated (material or spiritual).
    4. The internal structure of the group should be established (determine hierarchy).




* * *



Socialism 
 

Definiens:

A sophisticated strategy to gain power over the masses & exploit them until driving them into the ground.

 

Full description of socialism.

 


 

Remarks:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Spate of messages 
 

Definiens:

Degeneration of the system due to the inability to process an excessive number of messages that comes from environment and/or are generated by the system itself.

In pursuant systems, sensors provide messages from external stimuli. The analyzers must process these messages according to historical knowledge stored in the memory, useing innate and developed decision-making models in order to make right decisions. Then the system have to analyze the effect of corrective actions taken after these decisions, rethink about the issues and possibly reorganize memory and/or restructure the decision-making models that have been used. It is a lot of work!

In complex systems made of billions of pursuant objects (Man is made up of billions of cells, and human populations consists of tens, hundreds and thousands of millions of people), the aforementioned phenomenon multiplies, resulting in an excess of circulation of messages between the elements. Elements programmed by biological evolution can respond in two ways: either to respond to all messages or to ignore some/all of them. In the first case, the elements may be damaged by over-activity or an extension of resources, in the other can not respond to a message viable for them which can lead to damage or even destroy the whole system.

Systems naturally defend themselves against the spate of messages: living objects by sleeping and social organisms by social upheavals (The Soviet Revolution, The American Revolution, Polish Solidarity Revolution).

 


 

Remarks:

  • The concept of "spate of messages" extends concept of "cognitive lockup" known in psychology.

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Stability 
 

Definiens:

The ability of a system to maintain a given state or to execute a given process (in the mathematical sense of this concept), regardless of any disturbances.

 


 

Other definientia:

  • One can call a system stable if it returns to a state of equilibrium, when left without any interference. [Wikipedia pol. 2014.11.07]

 

Remarks:

  • The opposite to stability is instability - the phenomenon of abrupt changes in the behaviour of a system caused by a disturbance, even minor ones.

  • A system can be considered as more stable, when it corrects the influence of a disturbance faster.

  • A system can be considered as more unstable, when a smaller disturbance is able to permanently alter its given state.

  • The analysis how disturbances change the behaviour of a system is called sensitivity analysis, disturbance calculus or vulnerability analysis.




* * *



Stanford prison experiment 
 

Definiens:

One of the most important sociological experiments in The Physics of Life, showing that a/. human beings are programmable creatures; b/. the social roles we are given determines our behaviour; c/. but this behaviour is not the same for each individual group member.

The following description is based mainly on Wikipedia [Pol. & Eng. 2016.03] & http://www.simplypsychology.org/zimbardo.html. The original text by Wikipedia is grey, my changes are highlighted in black.

 

Description of the experiment:

Advertisement
An advert appeared in the local newspaper, which offered $15 (approx. $86 after adjusting for inflation) per day to participate in an experiment. More than 70 volunteers were screened for criminal records, health problems and mental illness. Eventually 24 students were chosen, coming from Canada and the United States.

Preparations
The basement of the psychology department of Stanford University was converted into a prison, with the guidance of former prisoners and prison staff. The doors of three rooms were replaced with steel bars. The ends of the 9-metre corridor, which was "the main courtyard" was boarded. They also decorated three other areas: changing rooms for the guards, the guard room and the office for the director of the prison. Zimbardo took the role of prison director, which, as he later said, "was a serious mistake in assumptions" as he became too emotionally involved in the experiment.

With the use of a hidden camera, everything in the main corridor was recorded. The conversations of the prisoners were also recorded. Additionally, there were neither windows nor clocks in the prison.

All guards were dressed in identical uniforms of khaki, and they carried a whistle around their neck and a billy club borrowed from the police. Guards also wore special sunglasses, to make eye contact with prisoners impossible. Three guards worked shifts of eight hours each (the 3 other guards remained on call). Guards were instructed to do whatever they thought was necessary to maintain law and order in the prison and to command the respect of the prisoners. No physical violence was permitted.

Before they were assigned roles, the participants were informed that the prisoners would receive minimal rations and that many of their civil rights will be limited.

Arrest
Prisoners were treated like every other criminal, being arrested at their own homes, without warning, and taken to the local police station. They were fingerprinted, photographed and "booked". Then they were blindfolded and driven to the psychology department of Stanford University.

When the prisoners arrived at the prison they were stripped naked, deloused, had all their personal possessions removed and locked away, and were given prison clothes and bedding. They were issued a uniform, and referred to by their number only. The use of ID numbers was a way to make prisoners feel anonymous. Each prisoner had to be called only by his ID number and could only refer to himself and the other prisoners by number. Their clothes comprised a smock with their number written on it, but no underclothes. They also had a tight nylon cap to cover their hair, and a locked chain around one ankle.

Conditions in jail
The prisoners when talking to the quards they had to use a formal term, and use their ID number when talking between themselves. For the prisoners to memorise their ID's, the guards organised a countdown several times during each shift. Initially, the prisoners did not take them seriously eager to show their independence. The guards were not yet able to force them to obey.

A popular form of punishment were push-ups. Although seemingly harmless, they gradually became a method of humiliation of the prisoners, especially when the guard put his foot on the prisoner's back, or made another prisoner sit on on the back of the one doing push-ups.

Termination
Zimbardo had intended that the experiment should run for a fortnight, but on the sixth day it was terminated. Christina Maslach, a recent Stanford Ph.D. brought in to conduct interviews with the guards and prisoners, strongly objected when she saw the prisoners being abused by the guards. Filled with outrage, she said, "It's terrible what you are doing to these boys!" Out of 50 or more outsiders who had seen our prison, she was the only one who ever questioned its morality.

 

Conclusions:

  1. Types of guards
    The guards can be divided into three basic types of behaviour:
    Righteous: they were strict, but fair.
    Human: they avoided causing harm to the prisoners and kept giving them "little favours".
    Torturers: they were happy abusing the imprisoned, although the personality tests showed no such tendency in them.

    However, there was one characteristic evident in all of the guards: they did not refuse to carry out any order (see Milgram experiment).

  2. The behaviour of prisoners
    Prisoners coped in different ways to the atmosphere of subordination and humiliation. Initially, some of them resisted the guards. Eventually, four prisoners suffered emotional breakdowns, and another with psychosomatic stress rash. Some become "good" prisoners, who performed all the guard's orders. Prisoners, as a group, were completely isolated and dominated by the guards.

  3. Systemicness & Programmability
    Performing a social role (a particular function, the job role, being a member of a social group) affects the person's behaviour and shapes their personality. The experiment "Study Monster" by Wendell Johnson, shows that this effect may be permanent.

 


 

Remarks:

  • The Official Stanford Prison Experiment website.

  • Wladyslaw Szpilman, in his book "The Pianist", wrote about a group of Jewish collaborators in the Warsaw ghetto: It consisted mainly of young people, coming from a wealthy strata. Among them were a large group of our friends. We became disgusted as we saw, gradually, these recently decent people, with whom we shook hands with and treated as friends, transforming into scoundrels. They were infected by the spirit of the Gestapo, so it should be called. At the moment they put on uniforms and caps and gripped police batons in hand, they became animals. Their main goal was to establish contacts with the Gestapo, becoming obsequious, parading with them through the streets, showing off their knowledge of the German language and showing off their brutality against the Jewish population in front of their German masters. Szpilman's record (of course not the only one) became known because his book became a best-seller. For many, this was simply an incredible shock. [...] Similar notes were made by Emanuel Ringelblum, Adam Czerniakow, the testimony given in the talks by Marek Edelman, the conclusions of Hannach Arent published in the book "Eichmann in Jerusalem" and the study by American historian Bryan Mark Rigg. In the conclusion of her research, Ewa Kurek comes to the frightening statement that "the most difficult, the most shameful and brutal part of the genocide of the Jews was executed by the Jews themselves".

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



State of a property 
 

Definiens:

it is the value of a given feature of a system/object.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Strategy 
 

Definiens:

This set of algorithms, plans, calculation methods, decision-making methods, manufacturing methods, optimization of criteria, resources, structures, configurations, predictions of others living objects steps, principles and rules are used to develop further actions to achieve the goal mainly in pursuant procesess. Strategy is more than just an algorithm. Strategy helps to plan an action even when the situation is unique and/or unforseen. The strategy also accepts random decisions.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Subsidiarity 
 

Definiens:

  1. (in the Roman Catholic Church) a principle of social doctrine that all social bodies exist for the sake of the individual so that what individuals are able to do, society should not take over, and what small societies can do, larger societies should not take over

  2. (in political systems) the principle of devolving decisions to the lowest practical level

[Source Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved June 24, 2017 from Dictionary.com website http://www.dictionary.com/browse/subsidiarity]

 

Full definition of subsidiarity.




* * *



Supercompensation 
 

Definiens:

In sports science theory, supercompensation is the phenomenon when the capacity of a given property rises after the training period and subsequent recovery period. In the words of The Physics of Life: supercompensation is the phenomenon when the state of a given property of a living object temporarily increases after a period of active engagement of this property and the subsequent non-engagement period. On the adjacent chart, the vertical axis represents the state of the property and the horizontal - time. For example: heavy physical work causes fatigue in the muscles, so that the level of efficiency in the field of physical work decreases. During the recovery phase, this capacity gradually returns to its initial state. This phase is named the compensation phase. Afterwards, it is followed by a transitional period of increased efficiency - on the chart this is shown by the green curve, and then efficiency returns to its initial level. This temporary increase in capacity is supercompensation - loosely translated, it is rebuilding with a surplus. This temporary increase in the capacity of the muscles makes them slightly more effective.

The graph shows a single cycle of events (exercise - rest - increase in capacity) which makes a so-called training unit. Note that supercompensation does not last forever and will eventually disappear. If you want to keep your improved capacity for a long time, you need to periodically repeat the training units - regular training.




* * *



Syndrome of attraction 
 

Definiens:

We are prone to accept and believe information given by those we consider attractive more than their less attractive counterparts.

 


 

Remarks:

  • This applies to individuals of the same sex. Woman groomed and dressed in an elegant tailored suit reaches her audience much easier and an elegant man to his.
  • If the message is transmitted by an attractive woman to a man, or vice versa, the instinct dominates: when a very nice woman is talking to a man, he does not know what she's talking about ... his mind is elsewhere.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of authority 
 

Definiens:

Making decisions and actions not based on our own reasoning, but based on the guidelines and directives of persons recognized as authoritative.
It is dangerous when the authority is giving instructions in areas where he is not experienced or is artificially created only to influence people.

 


 

Remarks:

  • In fact, a lot of people accept scientific theories because someone said that they are true, not because they understand them - [Lewis Wolpert, "Unnatural nature of science"]
  • To punish me for my contempt for authority, fate had it that I became an authority - [Albert Einstein]
  • The belief in authorities makes that mistakes of authority are accepted as models - [Leo Tolstoy]
  • Education, completely liberated from authority, tradition and dogma, ends in nihilism - [Leszek Kołakowski]

 

Links:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of blindness 
 

Definiens:

To be blind to anything that contradicts their strongly-held beliefs

This syndrome belongs to the group of populationally typical emotional reactions.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Those who believe in the existence of God reject any argument that disproves Its existence. On the other hand, people who consider themselves rational thinkers and reject the existence of God, barely (if at all) agree with this; that God, who might be a man-made idea, could be considered as an intangible object having the nature of a causative factor, which, depending on the circumstances, can positively or destructively influence human society.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of caste 
 

Definiens:

A complete set of actions performed by me to strengthen my group.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Typical manifestations of this syndrome:
    • Fight between members of the Catholic Church and Galileo.
    • Creation of a false history of the course of the Second World War, it especially concerns the years between 1941 and 1942, by Soviet state-dependent historians, now called "historians in epaulets".
    • Mutual support for the members of state and all state institutions.
    • The so-called "professional solidarity".

  • So, the most artful guys remained on site. For example, the fair food warehouse manager was always sent to the front line, leaving the thieves and crooks behind. Honest, yet gives all the stuff for the soldiers, hiding nothing for himself nor for the chiefs. And bosses like to eat greasy. Crooked, remembering about himself and always making his bosses happy. After all, they decide who to send to the front line. How can the bosses deprive themselves of such a valuable subordinate? Who was finally sent to the front line? Of course, the honest man! So, it created a kind of vicious circle, the dishonest supported the dishonest.
    And if some "idiot" out there was trying to fight for justice - they would have destroyed him all together...
    - [W. Bieszanov, "Defence of Leningrad", page. 315]

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of conforming 
 

Definiens:

 


 

Remarks:

  • In fact, a lot of people accept scientific theories, because someone said that they are true, not because they understand them. [Lewis Wolpert, "unnatural nature of science", page 9]

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of context 
 

Definiens:

The phenomenon of the different reactions of living objects on the same stimulus. The differences in reactions are due to different perceptions of reality and the different experiences of each of the living objects.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of criticism 
 

Definiens:

The set of phenomena caused by criticism against us. For example: we subconsciously resent negative criticism and automatically dislike the author(s). The opposite is true with positive criticism.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of defending the group 
 

Definiens:

The set of individual and group behaviours which leads to the protection of the institution or social group, of which they are a member.

 


 

Remarks:

  • A description of this syndrome by Adam Wisniewski-Snerg:
    Do you know that in the department of physics there are four places available for each potential student and they are fighting each other for this person? In such a situation, any moron who failed to get into any other department may be accepted. So we give them our free places as a life-saver, we coddle them and push them to the top. Thanks to this system, the graduates become our accomplices, and our institution of science is manned by rigid, numbered figures on their respective perches. This became an immovable wall, which cannot be dented by a single man with a notebook in his hand, especially if he has something important to say. Moreover, any of these scientists, who guard our institution, will always forbid disclosure of any valuable thoughts of a newcomer especially from outside the garrison. This is because, since all the publications issued so far made were to simulate knowledge, they will go to the wall. Such a tragedy can happen only once every few hundred years. It occurs only when an exceptional mess is formed within some specialty and as a result of huge negligence allowed by scientific officers appointed and trained to guard this emptiness. [Adam Wisniewski-Snerg, "According to the rapscallion"]

  • Galileo is usually associated with "conflict with the Catholic Church". This conflict, in a more general level, is a perfect example of the syndrome of defending the group.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of external blame 
 

Definiens:

Subconsciously attributing the causes of our own failures or inabilities to external forces (agents or people).

 


 

Remarks:

  • Of course, the Belarusian dictator, did not think for a moment that he himself caused the crisis, and blamed everything and everyone apart from himself. [James Woziński, "Panic in Minsk", Nczas XLII]

  • Everyone is holy, perfect and only some evil power has conspired to spoil everything, but they are still perfect and without fault. [Tomasz Maciejewski]

  • "Locus of External Blame" - Julian Rotter

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Syndrome of groupthinking 
 

Definiens:

is a psychological phenomenon when systematic errors are made by groups when making collective decisions, pertaining to desires for harmony or conformity within the group. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences. When subjectivity rules over objectivity or when emotions dominate reason.

The assumption is that the accumulation of knowledge and experience reduces the frequency of errors and leads to the best possible solution. Assuming that each participant brings a creative personal contribution, as a result of groupthinking, should be an informed, multilateral evaluation of the situation and make the right decision. This is why it is commonly believed that groupthinking provides better results than thinking alone.

But it turns out, more than you think, that the intelligence of the group does not exceed the intelligence of its individual members; that the decisions of the various committees and commissions are extremely broad and it would be better if they were made by a single person. In fact, the group is falsely perceived to be infallibile and intellectually superior. The higher the social status of each member of the group, the stronger this illusion is. The higher education level and the higher the internal cohesion of the group, also increases this illusion.

There are many factors that cause that a group makes decisions of inferior quality and often with a greater level of risk. These factors are called the syndrome of groupthinking.

By Irving Janis, who examined this issue, groupthinking is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • illusion of infallibility and subsequent self-confidence,
  • ignoring unfavourable information,
  • faith in their own work ethic, not taking into account ethical and moral aspects of the decision,
  • manipulation of the results and people outside the team,
  • applying social pressure to enforce conformity,
  • self-censoring themselves (to avoid repeating negative reactions of other people in the groups, silencing its critical members),
  • illusion of unanimity (silence is regarded as an expression of consent),
  • filtering of information, i.e.: members of the group are trying to block all kinds of information which they think can disrupt the group.
Group thinking leads to making bad decisions and forming crises, as it allows a group to see and hear only what the collective wants. Information inconsistent with the views of the group are ignored, especially if you are an outsider. The group does not look for and does not anticipate new opportunities, leading to unjustified optimism, complacency which can result in crisis. [translated from Wikipedia, pol, 2011.01.11]




* * *



Syndrome of jamb 
 

Definiens:

Set of phenomena associated with the deviation away from the main goal and, instead, focusing on a secondary goal (goals) to show that they are still focused on the main objective.

 


 

Remarks:

  • A good way for climbers to practice is for them to perform chin-ups using a door jamb. Some of these people think that if they can do 25 chin-ups, they will be able to climb the North Face of the Eiger.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of Kali 
 

Definiens:

Set of phenomena associated with a moral evaluation based on biased standards. One evaluates his own behaviour (or behaviour of social groups he belongs to) differently than to the evaluation of the same behaviour performed by others.

 


 

Remarks:

  • As a buyer we want everything for nothing, as a seller we want the largest profit we can get. So buyers and sellers are the same people, but motivated (and acting) differently according to their current situation.

  • If someone takes Kali's cows [...] this is a bad thing [...], a good thing is... when Kali takes somebody else's cows. [Henryk Sienkiewicz, "In Desert and Wilderness"]

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of Machiavelli 
 

Definiens:

Subconsciously attributing negative traits (or positive) to the person explaining (for example, in a scientific manner) negative (or positive) social issues.

Examples:

  • immoral is the one who talks about the immoral
  • when a person is discussing the issue of corruption, perceived by the majority as a negative phenomenon, and he starts to to show its positive impacts to the society, he is conisdered to be a corrupter
  • a person who preaches about social justice is perceived positively
  • anyone who is neutrally discussing Hitler's thoughts is considered a fascist

 


 

Remarks:

  • This syndrome works in both ways - automatically assigning positive traits to those who talk about positive social issues. The Communists, who history has shown to be cruel and incompetent economists are sympathised, because they are talking about helping the poor (which is the majority of us).

  • the title of the syndrome is named after Niccolo Machiavelli. He was the author of "Prince" (1513) - one of the first scientific papers devoted to the issue of governance. But to discuss governance without immoral issues is impossible. When Machiavelli wrote that cruelty and terror should be used, but reasonably, and only if necessary, he is automatically classified [on the basis of Machiavelli's syndrome] as a bully by the vast majority of readers. However, he is a great because, as Stendhal said, "he let us know the man".

  • Some criticisms of sociobiology have its origins in religious and political beliefs. The main complaint for "tolerance" or even "acceptance" of fugitive behaviour in our culture as immoral is largely due to a misunderstanding of the essence of the assumptions of sociobiology. Sociobiological theories do not comment at all about the "morality" or "rightness" of some behaviours. Their description does not mean evaluation, more acceptance. Edward O. Wilson

  • Another definiendum: messenger syndrome

 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



Syndrome of Mr John 
 

Definiens:

The tendency to bestow disproportionate trust to representatives of foreign nations, currently the leading nation economically and militarily. We believe them more than the facts.

 


 

Remarks:

  • This phenomenon is the result of the blind imitation of successful people. For example, if the master wears a gold signet ring a lot of people will also wear a similar signet, thinking that by doing this they automatically become a master.

  • This phenomenon has been known for centuries. It captures the essence of the great Latin proverb: Quidquid Latine dictum sit, altum videtur (whatever you say in Latin sounds smart). This can be paraphrased as: Poles believe anything an American says.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of Pillende 
 

Definiens:

 


 

Remarks:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of red eyes 
 

Definiens:

Red-eye syndrome expresses the desire that everyone is as flawed as I am, and taking appropriate actions to bring this about.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Do you know what is the hallmark of mediocrity? Reluctance to accept other people's achievements. These touchy mediocrities who sit and shake that someone else's work did not turn out to be greater than their own. - "Atlas Shrugged", Ayn Rand

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Syndrome of universal bullshit 
 

Definiens:

When people, conciously or otherwise, manipulate the truth for their own, or the group(s) they belong to, benefit.




* * *



Synthesizing replicator 
 

Definiens:

A system built from RPD-type objects which not only absorbs resources and divides, but also (as it were, "on the side") builds chemical particles (in terrestrial conditions - proteins) from the available elements (in terrestrial conditions - aminoacids). These particles are built using a design which are stored in the RPD-type objects, consisting of synthesizing replicators.

 


 

Remarks:

  • One such system is the biological cell:
    the design is DNA (RPD-type object),
    protein building machinery - ribosomes,
    and both DNA and ribosomes are packed within the cell membrane (which is also a RPD-type object).

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



System 
 

Definiens:

is a set of interacting objects forming an integrated whole.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Systemic thinking 

Definiens:

Systemic thinking expands from reductionist thinking by examining all the details even the theoretically unpredictable factors. Important elements of this thinking are:

Systemic thinking has allowed people to understand many complex issues and the construction of many new devices. However, it occured that it is not entirely suitable for capturing the subtle nature of a certain class of systems - social systems, i.e. those which are built of living objects, including ourselves.

In a very general form, we can say that systemic thinking is the modelling of an investigated phenomenon as an object/system, finding its causative factors and defining its affiliations and their impact on the phenomenon-object.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Systems engineering 
 

Definiens:

A science focusing on how to build a system, which:

  1. behaves in a given way;

  2. has a given natural tendency;

  3. causes that living objects (including man) behave in a way that the systems engineer wants.

 


 

Links:




* * *



System of a clean sink 
 

Definiens:

The classic model of how to build a complex system of rules and feedbacks imposed on people using a sink that ensures the sink is kept clean.

At first glance, it seems that if one starts with the initial condition: "the sink is clean and empty" it is enough that peaople act according to the rule: "if you put dishes in the sink, you must thoroughly wash them and put them on the dryer, while the sink must be rinsed and wiped, then the cloth has to be hung to dry".

However, such a system is not a guarantee that the sink will be clean permanently because it is not resistant to random disturbances (eg. A person who has just started washing the dishes has a heart attack) or resulting from the nature of an honest man (eg. When no one sees anybody leaving dirty dishes in the sink).

 

Further analysis leads to some interesting observations:

  • The natural tendency of the system is to fill up the sink with dirty dishes.
  • Maintaining a clean sink requires an active control system based on feedbacks
  • The following rule guarantees a clean sink: "If you bring dishes, put them in the sink. Wash all the dishes in the sink and put them on the dryer, rinse and wipe the sink, hang the cloth to dry." But of course everyone will argue why they should wash somebody else's dirty plates.
  • With the above rule, it pays to cheat and toss dirty dishes into the sink.
  • How do you guarantee that people won't put dirty dishes into the sink then walk away if there is no control?
  • It is, therefore, necessary to introduce a system of full control, discovering who cheats and responding to it.
  • Who will protest the most against this system?
  • How does the system administrator use the information obtained from it?
  • ...

 


 

Remarks:

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Systems theory 
 

Definiens:

Is the interdisciplinary study of systems in general, with the goal of elucidating principles that can be applied to all types of systems at all nesting levels in all fields of research. The term does not yet have a well-established, precise meaning, but systems theory can reasonably be considered a specialization of systems thinking, a generalization of systems science, a systems approach. The term originates from Bertalanffy's general system theory (GST) and is used in later efforts in other fields. In the social systems theory of Niklas Luhmann, word systems is used to refer specifically to self-regulating systems, i.e. which are self-correcting through feedback.

Self-regulating systems are found in nature, including the physiological systems of our body, in local and global ecosystems, and in climate and in human learning processes.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Tactic 
 

Definiens:

A characteristic element of a strategy

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Tactics of behaviour 
 

Definiens:

Tactics expressed through action taken by the object, e.g. behaviour

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Tactics of structure 
 

Definiens:

Tactics expressed in location of elements, something fixed, sustainable and with potential. An example of tactic of structure is our own anatomy.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Sometimes, to achieve a goal, we do not need to move or relocate - it is enough to have a suitable body structure (location of elements) and/or proper positioning (being in the right place).

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Terminators 
 
Definiens:

Any factors bringing an object to an end. Factors which cause that the criteria of objectivity are no longer fulfilled.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Terminators of the object "fence" include: demolition, dismantling;
  • Termination means that the object has ceased to be the object. For example: it can have been destroyed (after transformation, e.g. house into a pile of rubble) or disappeared (e.g. belief in the Greek gods).

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



"The State"  
 

Definiens:

"The State" is a set of people working in the governing (or state) institutions and the institutions that support them, mainly those financed by those in power.

According to the principle of developing natural defense mechanisms within the social group, these people directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously defend their group.

 


 

Remarks:

  • This definiens is the original definiens from The Physics of Life, so the speechmarks are its integral component.

  • When labeling a person to "The State" we should research how much the person is dependent on the state. Dependence on institutions of power can be achieved in many different ways, for example: by total financing, co-financing or permissions.

  • The state is an abstract concept, the state is a set of specific people - officials having power.

  • The state is composed of various gangs that have different interests.

  • The state is a set of addicts.

 

Links:

 

Quotes from literature:




* * *



The most important experiments in


The Physics of Life
 

Definiens:

The Physics of Life considers the following experiments to be of great importance:

  1. Social:

    1. Experiment "2,4,6" - shows that the first data and analysis on a given topic block the access to further data and subsequent analysis of this topic.

    2. Asch's conformity experiment - showing the phenomenon of submission to the majority - conformity - motivated by the fear of rejection by the group and the desire to be accepted by it.

    3. John Calhoun's experiment - showing the process to the extinction of the population, due to the lack of challenges.

    4. Ron Jones' experiment - showing that, in just five days, one can transform a group of teenagers into a group of militant fascists.

    5. Stanley Milgram's experiment - shows that even perceived authority can motivate individuals to carry out horrendous things.

    6. Stanford prison experiment - showing that a/. human beings are programmable creatures; b/. the social roles we are given determines our behaviour; c/. but this behaviour is not the same for each individual group member.




* * *



Thinking 

Definiens:

There are many definitions of thinking so it is difficult to find a universal one. The vast majority of them describe thinking as a process carried out by the brain, used to achieve a goal. The common theme of these definitions are models of various objects. Thought is said to be the creation of these models within the brain, analyzing their perceived behaviours, drawing conclusions after this analysis and making decisions based on this.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Training 
 

Definiens:

The formation and development, in a practical way, of abilities to perform pursuant processes more effectively, by an object or a group of objects.

 

All features can be trained, for example:
  • Individual motor skills: strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, coordination, routines;

  • Individual mental skills: motivation, determination, memorization, associations, focus, resistance, desire, game anticipation;

  • Group motor skills: cohesion, adapting physical features to fit better within the requirements of the team;

  • Group mental skills: tactics of cheating, tactics of mutual motivation, negotiation, communication, knowledge of how the team operates and ones role within it;

  • Individual technological skills: weapon use, knowledge of computer programming, etc.;

  • Group technological skills: tank crew cooperation, team dynamics, etc.

 

The essential elements of training:
  • Gaining theoretical knowledge;

  • Basic unit training: practical implementation of a feature and rest, aimed to profit from the phenomenon of supercompensation;

  • Training cycles: a given sequence of basic training units;

  • Systematic and repetitive training of a feature(s);

  • a href="#feedback" Title='Link to the definition of the concept of "Feedback".'>Feedback: external analysis of whether the applied training has brought the desired results. If they have not been achieved then new methods need to be found / invented and implemented;

  • Competitive training: sparring and competition enables one to practice in real-life situations and try new tactics. See Syndrome of jamb;

  • Trainer(s), Coach(es) & Supervisor(s)>, environment, practical experience:

 


 

Remarks:

  • In judo there are several, well-defined, training methods: individual motor skills (kata), competitive training (randori) and competition (shiai). [Read more]
  • ich,ni,san albo dziu waza, alba katari geiko

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Tytler's cycle 
 

Definiens:

The cycle is named after the Scottish philosopher Alexander Tytler (1774-1813), who is credited with the following statement:
The average age of the world's greatest civilizations from the beginning of history has been about 200 years. During those 200 years, these nations always progressed through the following sequence:

  • From bondage to spiritual faith;
  • From spiritual faith to great courage;
  • From courage to liberty;
  • From liberty to abundance;
  • From abundance to selfishness;
  • From selfishness to complacency;
  • From complacency to apathy;
  • From apathy to dependence;
  • From dependence back into bondage.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Venture 
 

Definiens:

A venture is a set of activities related to each other in a certain way, aimed at achieving a complex goal, based on limited resources. Examples are: production of a unique product, creating new technology, reaching the summit, blowing up a bridge, winning the game. Only the beginning and the end of the venture is usually defined. To some extent a venture is unique and complex.




* * *



Victory factor 
 

Definiens:

Any factor stored in the genetic or memetic design which helps ensure the living object (or a group of) to pass through to the next stage of selection.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



von Celebrra tactic 
 

Definiens:

Tactics involving the use of suitable ornamentations, wearing special clothing, implementing specific behaviours and gestures, enable us to show our adversary that we are more powerful than we really are. By doing this, people are able to intimidate or scare others into doing what we want.

 


 

Associated concepts:

 

Quotes from literature: (in Polish or Google English from Polish)




* * *



von Croesuss tactic 
 

Definiens:

Cheat in such a way that the adversary belives that his ally is his enemy

 


 

Remarks:

  • The name of this tactic comes from the fight carried out by the communist media against private entrepreneurs. The media insisted that producers of goods are the foremost enemies of the society, because they make themselves richer. According to the propagandists, the state manufacturers, in this regard, were much more socially useful, although they were more expensive and less productive. Society needs people to produce necessities, and not people who work unproductively for free.

  • Treasures collected by Croesus at the Sardis gold mines and forced taxes, have become proverbial. His name is now synonymous with being a rich man.

  • The particle "von" is an integral part of this name. It comes from John von Neumann's name - the father of the mathematical game theory.

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



von Neumann tactics 
 

Definiens:

Cheating in such a way that the adversary belives that they are not being cheated.

 


 

Remarks:

  • Previous definition:

    Duel action which leads to victory over the opponent (achieving the benefits of his cost) by:

    1. bluff (fraud) and
    2. double bluff - undermine his defence by raising confidence in him that we do not bluff

 

Associated concepts:




* * *



von Shamann tactics 
 

Definiens:

Cheating in such a way that the adversary believes that we have contact with a supernatural being, Gods, ancestral spirits or demons, or with a very influential person from whom we can receive aid. For example, kill our enemy, heal a loved one or solve a problem.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



von Sociall tactics 
 

Definiens:

Cheating in such a way that the adversary belives that we are doing everything for his victory.

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



von tactics 
 

Definiens:

The name of the set of effective tactics of disinformation used to facilitate the achievement of certain benefits. These tactics manipulate the emotions of the adversary. These include: von Croesus tactics, von Neumann tactics and von Sociall tactics.

The name "von" stems from the fact that the names of all these tactics begin with the prefix "von" (from the name of John von Neumann), and their names have a double letter "nn" - von Neumann, "ll" - von Sociall,...

 


 

Associated concepts:




* * *



Worldview 
 

Definiens:

A relatively stable, at a given stage of the Lifecycle of a human, set of judgments, beliefs and opinions about the world. It comes from mimicry, personal experience, education and localised culture: the media, religion, art, gossip, superstition, science and philosophy. Paired with thinking, it serves to analyze and evaluate received information in order to make decisions and actions.

 


 

Remarks:




* * *



Yang and Yin 
 

Definiens:

Czynniki przeciwstawne, pro i anty. Heglowska teza i antyteza, w fizyce życia: czynnik i czynnik przeciwstawny.




* * *