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It doesn't matter wheather we grow up in an English or a Chinese household; the brain wires itself according to the sounds of that language. The brain builds neural connections around sounds that are heard repeatedly, and it gradually pays less attention to sounds that are not as common. Over time it becomes increasingly difficult for a person to hear or speak unfamiliar languages. Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:16

As a child I saw the sky as a sea of stars without specific patterns, but then I learned a number of constellations, including Leo, the Twins, Cassiopeia, Orion, and the Big and Little Dippers. These are Western constellations, passed down through our culture. I enjoy looking at the night sky and seeing familiar constellations. I can quickly orient myself to the directions with glance at the sky. Unfortunately, however, now that I have learned these constellations, I am unable to not see them.

Indigenous people looked up at the stars and created their own unique constellations. I am blind to their constellations and unable to see the sky without the constellations of our culture. When I look at the sky, my focus is drawn to the symbols I know. I have defined this aspect of reality and therefore changed my experience of it. Language has a similar effect on our perceptions of reality. When we acquire language, we cease to see reality as it really is, and we see our symbols of it instead. For example, when you use the word “tree,” do you recall a photographic image of a specific tree, of do you imagine a more generalized, symbolic tree? Many people are so disconnected from nature that all trees tend to look alike. Consequently, few people ever really see a tree.

Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:43

We construct a reality based on models of how we would like that reality to be, not on reality itself. Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:47

But language shapes our perceptions. We label the world with the symbolic map of reality, blind to the errors in our mapmaking. Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:48

In effect, a child matures from a first-person experience, seeing the world only from his own perspective, to a second-person experience, seeing the world through the eyes of other people, even if not always accurately.

The important part of communication isn`t what is said, but what the audience hear.

The result is an ethnocentric viewpoint. Lacking exposure to other cultures and viewpoints, they understand only the code of conduct of their own culture and see it as the only way to do things. They interpret reality in black-and-white terms, believing the answers must be either this or that, based on their cultural background.

With role-playing, a black-and-white view of issues, and lacking a mature sense of case and effect, the mythical worldview is typically associated with gods and strong opinions of right and wrong. While younger kids tend to perceive reality in very magical terms, kids of this age perceive reality in more mythical terms. For example, while a younger child might imagine he can make a picture of a candy bar magically turn into a real one, an older child might be motivated to pray for one instead, perhaps imagining that if he behaves well then he will be rewarded.

Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:56

In this way, children subconsciously acquire the mannerisms and beliefs of family members, friends, and television characters. We don`t recall learning these things, but most of our behaviors as adults are driven by these deeply embedded programs. We assume we are self-aware, but human behavior suggests that we live like automatons reacting to circumstances according to preprogrammed scripts.

W ten sposób dzieci podświadomie przyswajają sobie maniery i przekonania członków rodziny. Nie pamiętamy jak nauczyliśmy się tego ale większość naszych dorosłych zachowań powodowana jest tymi mocno w nas osadzonymi programami. Uważamy się za myślących, jednak nasze zachowania dowodzą, że jesteśmy automatami wyzwalającymi w danych warunkach dane reakcje zgodnie z zapisanymi w nas instrukcjami.

Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:17

It could be said that people who are unobstructed by language are more capable of perceiving reality as it is, while the rest of us generalize reality into symbols and fail to notice our actual surroundings. We filter out extraneous information that might be distracting or overwhelming to the senses and see only what we want to see. Roadmap to Reality Elpel Thomas J. 9781892784292:87

In the early 1980s, two medical researchers from Perth, Australia, made an astonishing discovery: Ulcers are caused by bacteria. The researchers, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, identified a tiny spiral-shaped type of bacteria as the culprit. (It would later be named Helicobacter pylori). The significance of this discovery was enormous: If ulcers were caused by bacteria, they could be cured. In fact, they could be cured within a matter of days by simple treatment with antibiotics.

The medical world, however, did not rejoice. There were no celebrations for Marshall and Warren, who had almost single-handedly improved the health prospects of several hundred million human beings. The reason for the acclaim was simple: No one believed them.

There were several problems with the bacteria story. The first problem was common sense. The acid in the stomach is potent stuff – it can, obviously, eat through a thick steak, and it’s (less obviously) strong enough to dissolve a nail. It was ludicrous to think that bacteria could survive in such an environment. It would be like stumbling across an igloo in the Sahara.

The second problem was the source. At the time of the discovery, Robin Warren was a staff pathologist at hospital in Perth; Barry Marshall was a thirty-year-old internist in training, not even a doctor yet. The medical community expects important discoveries to come from Ph.D.s at research universities or professors at large, world-class medical centers. Internists do not cure diseases that affect 10 percent of the world’s population.

The final problem was the location. A medical researcher in Perth is like a physicist from Mississippi. Science is science, but, thanks to basic human snobbery, we tend to think it will emerge from some places but no others.

Marshall and Warren could not even get their research paper accepted by a medical journal. When Marshall presented their findings at a professional conference, the scientists snickered. One of the researchers who heard one of his presentations commented that he “simply didn’t have the demeanor of a scientist”.

Made to stick. Why some ideas Survive and others die. Heath, Chip; Heath, Dan 9781400064281:130